Lecture 1 spring 09- why microbes are important

Lecture 1 spring 09- why microbes are important - Why we...

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Why we study microbes They’re cool of course, but what are some other reasons
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Microbes are essential to life on earth n Human, animal, and plant  life on earth is made  possible by microbes n Recycle carbon, nitrogen,  sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen n Estimated that there are 5 x  1031 microbial cells on  earth n 60% of planet’s biomass n Dominated planet for over 3 
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Everyone is interested in some  part of microbiology n Disease n Beneficial microbes n medicines n Food n Cheese, salami, beer n Ecosystems n Energy
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Microbes balance and maintain Earth’s  environment n Diversity n Diverse biochemistries n Ubiquity n Abundance n Microbial ecology
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Microbes role in human  history n Germ theory n Microbe wars and treatments n DNA, hereditary material n Tools of molecular biology n Saving mankind
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Infectious disease
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1798 Edward Jenner  developed the first vaccine  for smallpox using the pustules from cattle  as inoculum.  -epidemiologist, keen  observations
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Germ theory n It was hard to accept that organisms  that couldn’t be seen were responsible  for “disease” and “fermentations” n Discoveries of today are hard to believe n Latent viruses n prions
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Louis Pasteur 1857  - Described the microbiology of the lactic  acid fermentation  1861  - coined the terms aerobic and anaerobic  in investigations of alcohol production by yeast 1864  – ended debate on spontaneous  generation 1880  – used “attenuated” strain as vaccine for  chicken cholera 1885  – injects Joseph Meister with aged spinal 
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Vaccines
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Robert Koch  publishes a paper on his work  with anthrax, pointing explicitly to a  bacterium as the cause of this disease. This  validates the germ theory of disease.  1876
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1881- pure culture studies  made possible -gelatin, agar 1882 – discovered the cause of  tuberculosis 1884 - discovered the cause of  cholera 1884 – Koch’s postulates Robert Koch
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Koch’s postulates Koch was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1905.
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DNA is responsible for inherited traits
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