Bacteriology 303- Todar- Exam 2- Spring 02

Bacteriology 303- Todar- Exam 2- Spring 02 - lvsleéyr...

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Unformatted text preview: lvsleéyr “(somewhme Bacteriology 303 . Second Examination March 21, 2002 1. Given that atmospheric oxygen ( 02 ) is harmful to biological systems, oxygen toxicity may be escaped if cells are able to convert toxic oxygen radicals to non toxic forms of oxygen using such enzymes as A. superoxide dismutase B. cytochrome oxidase C. catalase D. both A and C E. all of the above 2. Which type of bacterium below cannot grow in the presence of 02? A. obligate aerobe B. rrrr'croaerophr'le C. aerotolerant anaerobe ‘ 4 D. facultative anaerobe T E. none of the above I. 3. A bacterium that is a psychrotroph and a facultative anaerobe A. can grow at 50 in the absence of 02 B. can grow at 50 in the presence of 02 C. can grow at 250 in the presence of 02 D. both A and B ' . E. all of the above 4. Thermophilic bacteria adapt to life at high temperatures by possession of . A. DNA with a relatively high melting temperature B. membrane lipids that have a relatively high solidification temperature C. enzymes and other proteins which have a relatively high denaturation temperature D. both A and C > ’ ‘ E. all of the above Questions 5-7. The following data are used to plot the growth of Bacillus megaz‘erium over a 2-day period of time. The bacterium was inoculated into fresh medium at an original cell density of 100 cells per ml. Plate counts (colony counts) over - a period of 48 hours resulted in findings of 100 cells/ml at the time Zero, 102 cells/ml at 2 hours, 102 cells/ml at 6 hours, IO3 cells/ml at 8 hours, 105 cells/ml at 12 hours, 107 cells/ml at 16 hours, 109 cells/ml at 20 hours, 109 cells/ml at 24 hours, 108 cells/ml at 26 hours, 10 cells/ml at 40 hours and 10 cells/ml at 48 hours. 5. The lag phase of the bacterial growth cycle takes place between A. 0 and 6 hours ' B. 6 and 20 hours ' 0.20 and 24 hours ' , - e D. 24 and 40 hours B. none of the above 6. Exponential growth takes place between A. 0 and 6 hours ‘ B. 6 and 20 hours C. 20 and 24 hours D. 24 and 26 hours B. none of the above 7. The generation time of the bacterial culture is approxirrrately A. _18 minutes ' B. 24. minutes C. 36 minutes D. 72 minutes none of the above 8. A bacteriologist follows the growth of a bacterial culture using two teclmiques: viable cells are measured by plate (colony) http://www.bact.wisc.edujbact3 03/EXAMO3 022 _ ' 1 4/2/2002 ' after the addition of the antibiotic the bacteriologist observes the following: counts and total cells are determined by direct microscopic count. When the culture is in the mid-exponential stage of growth the bacteriologist adds an inhibitory concentration of a bacteriostatic antibiotic to the culture. Measuring growth immediatel A. total cells increase; viablecells are constant B. viable cells increase; total cells are constant C. both viable cells and total cells decrease D. total cells and viable cells are constant B. viable cells decrease; total cells are constant 9. At 1 pm a flask is inoculated with 10,000 bacterial cells. After a two-hour lag the culture divides and grows exponentially until it enters the stationary phase at 8 pm with a population of 1010 cells. What is the generation time of the bacterium? A. 10 minutes B. 15 minutes C. 20 minutes D. 30 minutes a E. 1 hour i 10. In microbiology, sterilization is defined as r ‘ A. gentle heating of a substance to reduce the total number of viable organisms present . B. killing all vegetative cells but not necessarily endospores in a defined area C. elimination of all forms of life in a specific area D. any 'chemical or physical treatment which kills bacterial pathogens E. none of the above 11. Pasteurization of milk using heat accomplishes A. complete elimination of all microorganisms in the milk _ B. reduction in the total number of organisms but no reduction or elimination of pathogens in the milk , C. elimination of pathogens but no elimination or reduction in the number of nonpathogens in the milk . ' D. killing all potential pathogens in milk except Mycobactén'um tuberculosis E. reduction in the total number of microorganisms and elimination of all» potential pathogens in the milk 12. The temperature and time necessary to sterilize a substance in the autoclave is A. 720/30 minutes B. 1000/30 minutes C. 1210/15 minutes D. 1600/2 hours E. 1800/1 hour 1 13. The pore diameter of membrane filters used in sterilization processes, selected because it is the largest pore diameter that will exclude passage of all bacterial cells, is: A. 0. 22 nanometers B. 22 micrometers C. 1.0 micrometer ._ _ D. 10 micrometer E. none of the above 14. Which statement(s) below refers to chemical food preservatives? A. They are cidal in their effect. B. They are not efifective against eukaryotes. C. They must be continually present in the food in order to be effective. D. both A and C E. all of the above I 15. As antimicrobial agents, chemicals such as formaldehyde, hypochlorite (chlorox) and phenolic compounds (e. g. lysol) are used as A. preservatives B. disinfectants C. chemotherapeutic agents D. antibiotics E. none of the above http://\mmv.bact.wisc.edu/bact303/EXAMO3 022 I ‘ 1 4/2/2002 ‘ 16. Two important features of bacterial cells that make them selective targets for the action of most clinically-useful antibiotics are ' , VA. absence of mitochondria and chloroplasts B. cell wall composition and ribosome structure C. presence of saturated fatty acids and absence of sterols in membranes , D. DNA (chromosome) structure and absence of a nuclear membrane B. cell size and type of nutrition - 17. A characteristic of the beta lactam antibiotics includes A. low therapeutic index B. limited spectrum of activity _ C. chemical structure containing a tetrapyrrole ring D. a bacteriostatic mode of action E. none of the above ‘ 18. Chemical modification of the substituent groups of a naturally—produced beta lactam molecule leads to the industrial I development of A. semisynthetic penicillins i'B. sulfa drugs. C. tetracyclines ‘ D. ,ehloramphenicol ' I '- beta'lactamase enZymes - "'5‘Pa‘géi3of7 19. Ethambutol, isoniazid (INI-I) and para-amino-salicylic' acid -(PAS),4used in the treatment of tuberculosis. are examples of -- .I I ‘\ A. antiseptics - - B. chemotherapeutic agents ' ' C.'antibiotics I D. semi—synthetic antibiotics E. none of the above 20.‘ The selective toxicity of the sulfa drugs is achieved on this basis. ‘ A. They specifically inhibit an enzyme involved in an early step in the synthesis of bacterial murein. B. They combine with yeast sterols (ergosterol) and thereby disrupt membranes. C. They bind selectively to the bacterial ribosome and block peptide bond formation between amino acids during the - ' translation process - , . _ D. They block the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria by acting as analogs of bacterial PABA. E. They block the activity of bacterial, but not eukaryotic, RNA polymerase. ,21. The selective toxicity of rifamycin is achieved on this basis. A. It blocks transcription in bacteria. B. It blocks translation in bacteria. - _ . C. Rifamycin is a metabolic analog of an esential vitamin in bacterial metabolism. D. It inhibits cell wall synthesis in bacteria; . ~ E. none of the above ' . - 4 . . . 3 ‘ 22. What is mechanism of action 'of the aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics in’bacterial cells? ‘ . A.:growth factor analogs that interfere with procaryotic vitamin metabolism ‘ B. disruption of the outer membrane of Gram-negative-bacteria C. interference with transcription ' ' - D. inhibition of cell wall synthesis E. interference with translation 23. The use of bacteriorhodopsin (purple membrane) to convert light energy into chemical energy is a characteristic of A. halobacteria ' _ _ I - B. nitrifying bacteria ' ‘ C. purple bacteria D. green bacteria ’ E. cyanobacteria 24. During the catabolism of one mole of glucose via the Entner—Doudoroff pathway utilized and mole(s) of ATP (total) are produced. http://wmvbactwisc.edujbact3 03/EXAMO3 022, mole(s) of ATP are - 4/2/2002 . 1,' 1, .2 .2, .3, U0tdi> hgvuawm ['1'] 25. The end products of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway as it is run in the bacterium Zyinomonas A. ethanol only B. ethanol. + C02 C. ethanol + lactate + C02 .D. lactate only E. propionate + acetate + ethanol + C02 26. Which reaction below that occt‘lrs during the Embden—Meyerhof pathway is a substrate level ATP. production? I p p . ’ ' A. Glucose ‘ >G1ucose-6- P - ‘ B. Glyceraldehyde-3—P >1,3,di-P—G1ycerate T C. 1.3,di—P-Glycerate >3 -P-Glycerate ‘ . - D. Phosphoenolpyruvate >Pyruvate ‘ . ' - E. two of the above ‘ 27.. Which reaction below is mediated by NAD as an' oxidizing agent? ' A. Fructose-1,6;di-‘P ‘ >(2)1Glyceraldehy_der3-P ‘ BfGlyceraldehyde-S-P >l,3,di—P-Glycerate C. 1,3,di-P—Glycerate >3-P-Glycerate D. Lactate >Pyruvate . E. two of the above 28. Which reaction below couples the pathways of glyCOIysis to the TCA cycle? A. Pyruvate _- ; >Acetyl CoA ' B. Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetate >Citrate C. Pymvate ‘ >'Lactate ~ ' D. Lactate >Pyruvate E. Phosphoenolpyruvate >Pyruvate 29. A lactobacillus isolated from sour milk converts the lactose to equimolar portions of lactic a metabolic conversion involves - A. the Embden—Meyerhof pathway B. the phosphoketolase pathway C: the Entner-Doudoroff pathway D. mixed acid fermentation E. anaerobic respiration p are phosphorylation that leads to cid, ethanol, and COZ. This ' 30. Bacterial fermentations proceeding through the Embden-Meyerhof pathway that result in the production of acetate, ' acetone, butanol and butyric acid are typically run by A. E. coli ' ' ' 9 ‘ ‘ B. Clostridz‘um C. Enterobacter " I D. Bacillus , -- - E. all of the above - 31. Water microbiologist's differentiate fecal enteric bacteria (E. coli) from non fecal enteric bacteria (e. g. Klebsiella) by means of the presence of this fermentation pathway in the non—fecal group. I A. lactic acid pathway ~ B. propionic acid pathway C. acetone-butanol pathway D. mixed acid pathway E. butanediol pathway 32. In contrast to fermentation, aerobic respiration requires A. deployment of the TCA cycle http://Www.bact.wisc.edu[bact3 O3/EXAMO3 022 4/2/2002 mdow> B, an electron transport system C. 02 as a final electron acceptor D. bothB andC ‘- E. all of the above 33. Which reaction in the TCA cycle is an oxidationmediated by FAD? _ A. Pyruvate >Acetyl CoA B. alpha Ketoglutarate >Succinyl CoA C. succinate >Fumarate D. Isocitrate >alpha Ketoglutarate ‘E. Furnarate >Malate 34. Which reaction in the TCA cycle is a substrate level phosphorylation? A. Isocitrate >alpha Ketoglutarate B. alpha Ketoglutarate- ' >Succinyl CoA C. Succinyl CoA >Succinate D. Succinate >Fumarate El‘none of the above DJ .12 .3. . 4‘ .6 .10 yields a total of 37 moles of ATP per mole of glucose oxidized (Assume ATP A. 20% _ . V ' B. 29% ‘ -' C. 36% D. 43% . E. cannot be calculated from the data. given 37.. Which reaction below is not a type of lithotrophic metabolism? ' A. 1-12 “‘“""“""““‘> H20 - B. FeH'“““‘“‘_‘-‘> Fez—l—H C. CO2 " """"""" “'> CO D. H28 *"-~-"------~> so I E. S0 “'"“""""'f“‘"> S04 1 38. Which reaction provides energy for the nitrifying bacteria? 9 _ N2”"""’"“"“f‘> 2NH3 ' ' . B. NH3 “““““ "_"“‘> N02 I ' C. N03 “‘""“""“"‘> NO2 D. N02 “"'”"““"""> NH3 E. two of the above 39. Which equation below represents the overall process of bacterial denitrification? A. N2 "‘ “““““““ "> ZNH3 B. m3 ----- --j--“~'—> No2 C. No3 “mm-m? NH3 D. N02 w ----- ~~~> NO3 E. none of the above http://www.bact.wisc.edu[bact3 03/EXAMO3 022 . 's'r'iriz‘agé's an a 5. How many moles of NADH are produced during one turn of the TCA cycle from citrate to oxaloacetate? . ‘ “ xx x“ 36.. If the complete oxidation of glucose yields 688 kcal/mole, what is the efficiency of metabolism in‘IPseudomonas that >ADP + Pi '+ 8 kcal/mole)? 4/2/2002 40. What metabolic process is used'by‘certain lithotrophs and phototrophs to reduce NADP as a source of reductant for ’ autotrophic CO2 fixation? A. TCA cycle B reverse TCA cycle C. electron transport phosphorylatr'on D. reverse electron transport E. none of the above 41. Photosynthesis in the Purple'Bacteria involves all of the following except 'A. chlorophyll that absorbs light in the range of 800—1000nm B. fixation of C02 by RUBP carboxylase and the Calvin cycle . C. use of substances other than H20 as electron donors for reduction of NADP D. production of 02 _ _ . E. synthesis of ATP by cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem I) ' 42. Photosynthesis in the Green Bacteria involves A. chlorophyll a to absorb light optimally at wavelengths near 650-750nm ' .‘ B. carotenoid pigments which absorb light near 450nm ‘ - ' C. phycobilin pigments which absorb light near 550nm _D,.bothBandC"l .' 3' . ‘ '.. - -_ E. all of the, above . . 43. During the light reactions of photos'ystem II in the Cyanobacteria A. an electron ejected from photosystem II is transferred to a pigment in photosystem I B. ATP is produced by the mechanisms of electron transport phosphorylation ’ C. 02 is produced ~D. all of the above I E. none of the‘above- 44. An important role of'carotenoids in all photosynthetic bacteria, besides acting as' light—harvesting pigments, involves ‘ A. shielding chlorophyll from harmful wavelengths of light , B, ”quenching" singlet oxygen, thereby preventing harmful photooxidations in cells” C. transferring electrons in the photosynthetic electron transport system D. providing electrons to photosystem I for reduction of ferredoxin E. all of the above . . ' 45. The function of the Calvin Cycle in autotrophs includes Afregeneration of ribulose bisphosphate necessary to drive the cycle B. regeneration COZ for autotrophic CO2 fixation ' C. regeneration of NADPH as a source of reductant . D. production of intermediates for cell biosynthesis (anabolism) E. two of the above . . ~ 46. During CO2 fixation involving carboxylase and the Calvin cycle, how many moles of NADPH are required to. ‘ reduce one mole of CO2 to carbohydrate? , A. l " ’ ’ " T ’ B. 2 ' C. 4 .D. 10 E. 12 47. Which reaction below is characteristic of certain lithotrophic and phototrophic procaryotes? A. H20.“ --------- --> 1/202 ' ' B. NH3 '“""""""'"‘> N02 C. CO2 """""""""‘> CO D. HZS "'"""""""> S0 E. none of the above http://www.bact.wisc.edu[babt3 O3/EXAMO3 022 4/2/2002 ' " T'iiéigéiéiéfi h .. -l\ 0 t 48. What process is utilized by theGreen Bacteria to obtain carbon for growth. AfCalvin cycle 3 I B reverse TCA cycle C. oodh pathway D. both B and C E. none of the above 49. Which reaction below occurs during autotrophic C02 fixation in the methanogens? A. Acetyl CoA + C02 >Pyruvate ' B. Succinyl CoA + C02 >alpl1a Ketoglutarate C. alpha Ketoglutarate >Isocitrate D. Ribulose bisphosphate + C02 >(2) 3-P—Glycerate E. + ' t>ACety1'B12 _ 50. In a meromictic lake the abundance of methyloiIophs and lithotroph‘s is found in the A. surface waters B. sediments _ ‘ . C. aquatic layer overlying the sediments D. the miroaerophilic region bf the themwline ‘ , the anaerobic region of the then‘nocline http://mwv.bact.wisc.edujbaot3 03/EXAMO3 022 g g .. .PégéTOffzm 4/2/2002 31.6 “6.12) 3930 ‘ ADD . ' 1H. '5 ‘ H26 45» LINN; Abe No: 3 Ln} ’0 ‘4‘ng LtQ, i EDD-D ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2009 for the course MICROBIO 303 taught by Professor Kaspar/escalnte/downs during the Spring '09 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Bacteriology 303- Todar- Exam 2- Spring 02 - lvsleéyr...

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