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Unformatted text preview: "x‘a. Practice‘wria‘l f6} Genetics 466 — Spring 2002 1. The gene frequency of a recessive allele causing elevated systolic blood pressure is
0.01? How many affected people would you expect to ﬁnd in Madison (population: 200,814}? nearest whole number and use the digit in the ones place. Round to the Questions 25 refer to the following data on the ABD hlood types in humans. Assume
the data come from a population in Hardy—Weinberg proportions. Allele Phenotype Genotype
Frequencies Frequencies Frequencies
A we
Iu
.L 1 i 2. What is the gene frequency of the C} allele? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. i 3. What is the genotype frequency of AA?
Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place.
4. What is the genotype frequency of BO? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest Whole number.
and uSe the digit in the ones place. 5. What is the phenotype frequency of blood type A? Express your answer as a percent. round to the nearest whole number, and use the digit in the ones place. Practice Final tor Genetics 455. Spring 212102 Page 1 of l 1 6. "Pat" is someone you have met on the intemet, but you don' t know if this person isa ' male or female. However you deduce from some of Pat s comments concerning a picture
which both of you have seen that hefshe 1s colorblind. What' 1s the probability that Pat 1s
a male given that the color blindness is the result of an allele at an X linked locus, and
the gene has frequency 0. 09. Assume random— mating frequencies prevail and that males
and females are equally frequent 1n the population Questions ?9 refer to the following situation: The cristofess {of} mutation affects antenna
formation, and black (I?) alters cuticle pigmentation in Drosophila. Both loci are on
chromosome 2 and separated by 48.1 centiMorgans. Seven populations, each with 500
ﬂies. were analysed to determine the numbers of each type of chromosome. {So there
are EN = 1000 chromosomes from each population.) I000 7. What 1s the gene frequency of of? (Hint: it is the same for all populations. )
Express your answer as a percent. round to the nearest whole number.
and use the digit in the ones place.
8. Which population {0—6) is in linkage equilibrium? +
{:3 if ﬂies? Assume HardyWeinberg 9. For population (0), what is the frequency of proportions. Express your answer as a percent. round to the nearest whole numbert
and use the digit in the ones place. Practice Final for Genetics 466, Spring aces Page ’2 of l 1 10. If a population consists of 5 AA 68 As and 2? aa, what 1s the gene frequency of the
A allele? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. 11. Which individual (08} in the ﬁgure to the right is not inbred? 12. In the ﬁgure to the right, what would
be the inbreeding coefﬁcient of an
offspring of a mating between 2 and 5'? Express your answer as a percent. round to
the nearest whole number, and use the
digit in the ones place. 13. A ﬂock of 30 Mentions monocus found their Way from a large, randomlymating
population in Central America to a small island near Trinidad. Their descendants
remained on the island for 40 generations With the population sine staying constant at 30.
What 1s the average inbreeding coefficient 1n this population? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. 14 A recessive genetic disease affects 36 people per ten thousand in the general
population. How many does it affect per ten thousand among those with inbreeding coefficient II]. 09? Round to the nearest whole number and uSe the digit in the ones place. Practice Final: [or Genetics 455. Spring 2on2 Page 3 of l l 15. A neutral mutation has frequency 0.06 in a population. What is the probability that it
will be fixed eventually? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and Use the digit in the ones place. 16. Lois has an inbreeding coefficient of 0.08, but she is unrelated to her husband. What
will be the inbreeding coefficient of Lois's children? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. lI’T. Henry‘s wifels uncle is also Henry's sister's husband. What is the inbreeding
coefficient of Henry's children? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. . es“
ﬁeﬁfh l ' . .
”l ‘? {HHIII only one statement is true.) 18. Which is true about the equation F = +1 (E) It represents the balance (B The symbol ,u refers to the mutation
between selection and mutation from the normal allele to a harmful
one. (E) It represents the balance between (E) It can be used to estimate the time
drift and mutation (in generations) since two species
diver_ed from a common ancestor. It applies only to cases where the E) It is only true when there is no
heterozygote is more fit than interaction between genotype and either homoz  ote environment. It can be used to estimate the It shows that F will eventually
mutation rate of dominant or approach 1 in a small population after
sartiall dominant mutations. enou h time. It indicates the rate at which the (E) It can be used to estimate the effect
inbreeding coefficient increases of inbreeding in mating systems, such in a small population _as "circular" or ”maximum avoidance
of inbreedini. Praetice Final for Genetics 466. spring aces Page 4 of I l i9. D is a harmful dominant mutation. Half the individuals who have it die as embryos,
and only.r ll3 of the survivors are fertile. What is the ﬁtness of those who have the gene
relative to homosygotes for the normal allele? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. 20. Fitnesses at the A locus are shown at right. If
the A allele has frequency 0.1 in generation 1,
what will be its frequency in generation 2'? Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number, and use the digit in the ones place. 21. Referring to the previous problem, what will he the eventual frequency of the A
allele when it reaches equilibrium? Express your ansvver as a percent, round to the nearest whole number, and use the digit in the ones place. l—I: 22. The plot to the right shows
the increase in frequency
of a favored gene, 1%,. In
one curve, A, is dominant,
in one it is recessive, and
in the third it has intermediate dominance.
Which is true? D Frequencyr ot‘A. ,100 Practice Final for Genetics 455, Spring EDGE Page 5 of l l 23. Which statement is true for the
ﬁtnesses shown to the right? (E) The A, allele is dominant (E) The two alleles are codominant.
. . We cannot determine the dominance
(D The A3 allele ls dominant with the information provided.
® Overdominance exists at the
locus 24. The frequency of a gene will increase whenever its genie ﬁtness is greater than the
population average ﬁtness. 25. The A: allele is recessive and causes 
sterility in males. It has no affeet on females. GEDWYPE A1155] Alﬁe Age:
What is the relative fitness of the AEAE —
homozygotes‘? Fitness 1 it Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number.
and use the digit in the ones place. pl} 4? (E) The symbol trefers to time
. .  3
measured 1n _enerattons. As I gets large, p, approaches zero. CD It impligs qr : Mi a} It requires that the allele whose
1+ tpn frequency is p, be full}? recessive. 26. Which statement is false about the equation p. = (E) It indicates the progress of
selection against a recessive lethal
trene whose freuenc is l  n . (E The equation is valicl only if there is
no mutation. Practice Fina! for Genetics 456. Spring 2002 Page 6 of 11 27. Hartnup disease is'an autosomal recessive disorder affecting intestinal and renal
transport of amino acids. Fitness of affected individuals is thought to be 80% that of
unaffected people (1113., s = 0.2). What proportion of newborns will have the disease if the population is in equilibrium and if the mutation rate is 105? m 1 car 141 .. 1 nor 20,000
0 1 nor 233 ﬂ 1 nor 30,000
a 1 er 316 B 11er 100,000 23. Referring to the previous problem, suppose the Hartoup disease gene were not fully
recessive, but instead gave heterozygotes a fitness of 97% compared to homozygous
normal genotype (13.2., its = 0.03}. Now what proportion df newborns would be
expected to be homozygous for the disease under the same assumptions of equilibrium and ,u = 10—5?
(in 1 or 20 000 a 1 nor 200,000 '
G) 1 pa 30,000 (g) 1 per 9 x 105‘
(2) 1 per 100,000 (g) 1 Fer 9.41 x 109 29. Dwarﬁsm in dairy cattle is caused by an autosomal recessive and is seen in one calf
per 9000. Estimate the mutation rate. Assume dwarf cattle do not reproduce and that the
population is in equilibrium. @ 0 0208 (D 0 0105
(2) 0.000111 ( “ 30. The equation p’ = pﬁj does not apply in the case of overdominance.
w Gm...
0.? Express your answer as a percent. round to the nearest whole number. 31. If the A2 allele has a frequency
of 0.4, what is its genie fitness? and use the digit in the ones place. Practice Final for Genetics 456. Spring 2002 Page 71" of l l 32. Estimate the minimum number of genes responsible for the difference in fruit size
between two tomato strains. The two inbred strains had average fruit sizes (expressed as
the natural logarithm of the weight in pounds) of 4.93 and 40.45. The variances were
both 0.012. The F2 plants had a mean phenotype of 4.215 and a variance of 0.050. Round to the nearest whole number and use the digit in the ones place. 33. Referring to the previous problem, what is the broadsense heritability of the FI
population? Express your answer as a percent. round to the nearest whole number.
and use the digit in the ones place. 34. One of the genes affecting tomato size exerts its effect in a temperature—dependent
manner. Which assumption{s) does this dependence violate? t : i no genotype—environment b
. . i:i othCiandiZ}
interaction
{D no genotypeenvironment b
. i:i othi:landi:}
correlation mix) = ‘ngJ + Vlje) none of the assumptions is violated. 35. Identical twins were used to measure the broad—sense heritability. However, their
environments were more similar to each other than they would be if they were entirely
random. How does this similarity in environments affect the estimate of heritability
obtained as the correlation between twins? (E) H2 is H2 is (E) H2 is still estimated overestimated underestimated accurately, but It? cannot be
estimated. ' Practice Final for Genetics ass, Spring 2131212 Page 3 of l l Questions 3633 refer to the use of the bacterium, Bacillus
thuringiensis, to control gypsy
moths in areas such as Dane a.
County. The bacteria are (life sin) {life Siﬂl ”113$ 9W applied broadly via crop
duster airplanes. The bacteria produce a protein, known as BT toxin, which kills gypsy
moth larvae with high specificity when ingested by the larvae. Susceptibility to the toxin
is measured as the LDSU, or dose of BT toxin at which 50% of the larvae are killed. You can think the L350 as a phenotype. it indicates the average susceptibility to BT. t' e . 36. A sample of gypsy moths taken from the Madison area before the recent BT application was found to have an LDSO of 27.2 pgt'ml. A second sample was taken
immediately after the spraying to examine the LDSO of the survivors. It was found to be 52.4 pgi’ml. Finally, a third sample was taken from the next generation —— the progeny of
these survivors w which had not been exposed to BT toxin. They were found to have an LDSO of 31.9. What is the narrow sense heritability? '
Express your answer as a percent, round to the nearest whole number,
and use the digit in the ones place. 3?. Next year, the plan is to spray the area with a higher concentration of Bacillus
ihuringieusis so that the survivors will have an average LDSO of "i0 pgiml. Predict the
average LDSf] of the offspring of these survivors. Assume the population average
phenotype will be 31.9 pgt'ml before the spraying and that the narrow—sense heritability will be what you calculated in the previous problem. Round to the nearest whole number and use the digit in the ones place. 38. The narrow—sense heritability of LDSU in gypsy moths is small compared to many
other traits. What is a likely explanation for such a low if? @ Genes affecting insecticide (3} Previous exposure of the population
resistance are likely to have little to BT toxin has already led to dominance. Therefore V(d) is ﬁxation of many alleles, thus
small. reducing both if2 and if. G) Number of genes is small Correlation between half—sibs is
higher for LDSU than other traits (Z) Relatively little environmental (3) All of the above explanations are
variance possible Practice Fina1for Genetics 4ee. sering eooa Page 9 of 11 39. You can estimate the narrow sense heritability with the correlation between first
cousins raised separater {rip} with the formula h: = Kr“. What is K? Round to the nearest whole number and use the digit in the ones place. 40. Hamilton‘s rule says a gene favoring altruistic behavior will increase in frequency if the behavior satisfies is: 2F. What does "c" stand for? (E) The ﬁtness difference between (E The kinship coefﬁcient between the
the donor and the recipient donor and recipient (I) The difference between the '. The phenotypic correlation between
fitness of the donor before and donor and recipient ' after the altruistic act The difference between the (E) The speed of light in a vacuum.
ﬁtness of the recipient before and
after the altruistic act Practice Final for Genetics 466, Spring EDGE Page 10 of 1 1 Answers 1. 1.1111311211113141: 53 __________ 21. 1’5=—5—= .1 =0333
2+ @ ”~20 5” “'2
3.111 1111.111 22111
0.590ﬂ B [1.53“ A0 {1.{184IJ 
4_ (E) 0.2360 ——_ 23. (l)
24 @
5.13) 11.1231 
11161516613 25 25. (E) w” = 0 50
26 (E)
‘ —5
6. (E) from Bayes's theerem. 211'. (E) c}: = E = 111—. = “_1—
[_gg){_5) 11 91? 3 11.2 200013
{.11911.51+(.119}2(.5) ' 23' G) &=_11_111—51 56 932 = . 1 3
1. @: 11.111 113 11.113 91:10
3_ (E 29. (2:111:56: 119000
9. 21231111132111 = 11.1192 3'3 G3
111. (E) 511110 + (11211631111111 = 11.39 31 ® (4111)+1611.11= 0. 46
11.15) [_—1.93 {—11.1151}
32 —————~— = 7.7
1 2 1 1 .35: 311 3111. 11511 11.1112) 3mg
12‘ (5] [HE] ]:0'23125 11 11511 111112
_ 33.13) 112 = —'——u‘—:U.?6
311— 1 411 11.11511
1313355111: (— 60 J (I— CI): {1.489 [email protected]
35. @1
14— (Z) 112 + 1:119 : 101:0 +(11.119}(.94){1161 2 31_9_ 2? 2
36. ® 11 =——=11. 1365
36.16 52. 4—— 21. 2
= 11.003616 = — 2_
111111111 31. (3) 1w =11 1m, =(11.1365}(111—31.9}
15. @ ﬁxation probability = p = 11.116 301? = 10f + 31.9 = 39
17. @ F = [1 because Henry and hls w1fe are 39 F = 1116 for ﬁrst cousins. 311
unrelated.  1
11 = — = 3.
13 G) 2F
19. 1:) 1112111131: 116 = 16.6113 411. (I)
.93
211. = : 1 ———=11. 1111
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