C6 - C1. All of these processes are similar in that a...

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C1. All of these processes are similar in that a segment of genetic material has been transferred from one bacterial cell to another. The main difference is the underlying mechanism whereby this transfer occurs. In conjugation, two living cells make direct contact with each other, and genetic material is replicated and transferred from one cell to another. In transduction, a virus infects a cell, makes new virus particles that contain some genetic material from the bacterium, and then these virus particles are transferred to a new bacterial cell. Finally, in transformation, segments of DNA are released from a dead bacterium and later taken up by a living cell. C2. It is not a form of sexual reproduction whereby two distinct parents produce gametes that unite to form a new individual. However, conjugation is similar to sexual reproduction in the sense that the genetic material from two cells are somewhat mixed. In conjugation, there is not the mixing of two genomes, one from each gamete. Instead, there is a transfer of genetic material from one cell to another. This transfer can alter the combination of genetic traits in the recipient cell. C3. If neither cell has a selective growth advantage, we would expect that the F + cells would eventually overrun the population. This is because a mating starts with an F and F + cell and ends with two F + cells. Therefore, F + cells can convert F cells into F + cells but the opposite cannot occur. C4. An F + strain contains a separate, circular piece of DNA that has its own origin of transfer. An Hfr strain has its origin of transfer integrated into the bacterial chromosome. An F + strain can transfer only the DNA contained on the F factor. If given enough time, an Hfr strain can actually transfer the entire bacterial chromosome to the recipient cell. C5. The role of the origin of transfer is to provide a starting site where two important events occur. The DNA is nicked
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C6 - C1. All of these processes are similar in that a...

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