U14_F08 - Unit 14 1 UNIT 14 PART A FATTY ACID DEGRADATION...

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Unit 14 1 U NIT 14 P ART A: F ATTY A CID D EGRADATION P ART B: F ATTY A CID S YNTHESIS The oxidation of long chain fatty acids to acetyl CoA is a central energy yielding pathway in animals and some bacteria. The electrons removed during fatty acid oxidation, and oxidation of acetyl CoA via the TCA cycle, pass through the mitochondrial respiratory chain and drive ATP synthesis. P ART A: F ATTY A CID D EGRADATION Assignment: Nelson & Cox, pp. 346, 647 - 656. 1. Fatty acids are stored in adipose cells as triacyl glycerol. Draw the structure of triacyl glycerol using R to represent the long chain fatty acid tail (p. 346). 2. Define the following terms (p. 649): a. chylomicrons b. apolipoproteins 3. Use Fig. 17-3 (p. 650) to illustrate the following points: a. Activation of lipase in adipocytes through hormone sensitive amplificaton. (Note: a cascade like the one that activates glycogen phosphorylase also activates hormone sensitive lipase) b. Using structures, write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction catalyzed by lipase (p. 649).
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Unit 14 2 c. How are the hydrophobic fatty acids stabilized in the blood as they are transported to tissues (p. 649)? d. What is the fate of the glycerol backbone (Fig. 17-4, p. 650 - note dihydroxyacetone phosphate is common to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis)? e. Using structures, write a balanced chemical equation for the cytoplasmic reaction that results in activation of fatty acids (Fig. 17-5, p. 651). What aspect of the activation process drives the reaction to completion? f. Where in the eukaryotic cell does fatty acid oxidation occur (p. 650)? g. Discuss how the activated fatty acid is carried into this membrane bound compartment (pp. 650 - 652). 4. Discuss the three stages through which energy is derived from fatty acid degradation (Fig. 17-7, p. 653). 5. Fig. 17-8 (p. 653) shows the details of a single round of β -Oxidation. Note that you will be responsibile for the types of reactions involved and the
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