U11_F08 - Unit 11 1 UNIT 11 PART A: GLUCONEOGENESIS PART B:...

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Unit 11 1 U NIT 11 P ART A: G LUCONEOGENESIS P ART B: T HE P ENTOSE P HOSPHATE P ATHWAY P ART C: P YRUVATE D EHYDROGENASE AND THE TCA C YCLE P ART A: G LUCONEOGENESIS Assignment: Nelson & Cox, pp. 551 - 558, 582 - 583, 585 - 588, 590, 918 - 919. 1. Gluconeogenesis a. What is meant by the term gluconeogenesis? Why is this process important in animals? In what tissues does it mainly occur (p. 552)? b. Using Fig. 14-15 (p. 552) as a guide, name three non-carbohydrate precursors of glucose. c. Why does gluconeogenesis require a pathway different than the reversal of glycolysis (p. 552)?
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Unit 11 2 2. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis are opposing pathways (pp. 552 - 557). a. On Fig. 14-16 (p. 553) and Table 14-2 (p. 553), point out three steps in glycolysis that are essentially irreversible. Note that all the other reactions are reversible. b. Bypass 1: Conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenol pyruvate (Fig. 14- 17, p. 554) 1) Using structures, write balanced equations for the reactions involved. 2) Name the cofactor used by pyruvate carboxylase and describe its function (Fig. 14-18, p. 554 - you do not need to know the structure of biotin!). What is the role of ATP? 3) In this series of reactions, pyruvate is first carboxylated to oxaloacetate and then decarboxylated to phosphoenol pyruvate. Why is this series of steps important (p. 555)? 4) Use Fig. 14-19 (p. 555) to discuss two alternate pathways from pyruvate to phosphoenol pyruvate. c. Bypass 2: Conversion of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate to fructose 6- phosphate Write a balanced equation for the reaction catalyzed by fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase 1. Name the type of reaction (p. 556). d. Bypass 3: Conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to glucose Write a balanced equation for the reaction catalyzed by glucose 6- phosphatase. Name the type of reaction (p. 556).
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Unit 11 3 3. The following summarizes the bioenergetics of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Net ATP glucose 2 pyruvate +2 2 pyruvate glucose - 6 a. Account for the 6 ATPs required for gluconeogenesis. Remember that we are dealing with the conversion of two moles of pyruvate and that, energetically, ATP and GTP are equivalent. b.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2009 for the course BIOBM 330 taught by Professor Blankenship during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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U11_F08 - Unit 11 1 UNIT 11 PART A: GLUCONEOGENESIS PART B:...

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