Chapter 5 - Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 5 - Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes -...

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Chapter 5 - Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes 5.1 An Overview of Alkene Reactions A. Addition to the C = C 1) pi bond is broken 2) two new sigma bonds are formed B. Formation of Addition Polymers 1) addition of monomers to a growing polymer 2) requires a catalyst (initiator) 5.2 Alkene Addition Reactions A. Addition of Hydrogen Halides 1) Halogen acids (HCl, HBr, and HI) add to alkenes to give haloalkenes 2) Markovnikov's rule (regioselective reactions) a) In the addition of HX(a hydrogen (H) and a Halogen (X)) or H2O to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the C of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens. b) Used to predict major product. B. Addition of Water-Acid-Catalyzed Hydration 1) Water adds to alkenes to give alcohols 2) Requires acid catalyst (sulfuric acid) H2SO4 or H2PO4 3) Adds according to Markonikov's rule C. Addition of Bromine and Chlorine 2) Reaction occurs at room temperature. Inert solvent is often used (CCl4) or CH2Cl2.
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Chapter 5 - Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes -...

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