chapter 16 notes - III. Concentration(Qualitative) A....

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Chapter 16-Solutions I. Terminology A. Solutions-mixtures which appear to be homogeneous B. Solute C. Solvent 1. Water, the Universal Solvent. 2. Like-dissolves-like Miscible(two liquids mix) Immiscible (two liquids don't mix)(veggie oil and water) Solute + Solvent = solution Solute: substance dissolved in the solvent Solvent: dissolving medium. II. The Dissolving Process A. The process on the molecular level B. Energy changes accompanying the process. C. Changing the Dissolving Rate:
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1) Effect of changes in temperature Increase Pressure: Increases dissolving rate for solids into liquids, liquids into liquids Decrease dissolving rate for gases into liquids 2) Effect of changes in pressure Increase Pressure: Increase dissolving rate of gases into liquids. No effect on the dissolving rate of solids and liquids. 3) Effect of changes in surface area Increase Surface area: Increase dissolving rate of solids into liquids No effect on liquids or gases
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Unformatted text preview: III. Concentration(Qualitative) A. Concentrated/Dilute B. Solution Equilibrium 1) Unsaturated 2) Saturated Dissolving---------------> <---------------Recrystallization The speed of dissolving affects the speed of recrystallization 3) Supersaturated C. Factors that determine solubility 1) Intermolecular forces 2) Partial pressure of a solute gas over liquid 3) Temperature IV. Concentration(Quantitative) A. Mass Percent: Mass of solute per 100 grams of solution. Mass%= Mass of part (100%) mass of whole Mass Solution% = Mass of Solute (100%) Mass of solute + mass of solvent Mass % Solution = Mass of Solute (100%) Mass of solution B. Molarity 1. Molarity= moles of solute liters of solution ex: 0.250 M HCl means 0.250 moles HCl L HCl C. Dilution of Solutions- Adding more solvent to concentrated solution 1)Since n=MV, # of mol = molarity x volume 2) M_cV_c= M_dV_d where c=concentrated, d=diluted....
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chapter 16 notes - III. Concentration(Qualitative) A....

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