Chem 231 ch.1 Notes - Structure and Bonding 1. A Shells or principal energy levels(1,2,3 1.2n^2electrons/shell(n=#oftheshell 2. 3. n=12x1^2=2x1=2e

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Structure and Bonding 1.1 Electronic Structure of Atoms A. Shells or principal energy levels (1,2,3,. ...) 1. 2n^2 electrons/shell (n=# of the shell) 2. Distribution of electrons in shells 3. Relative energies of electrons in shells. n=1 2x1^2=2x1=2e n=2 2x2^2 = 8e n=3 2x3^2 =18e B. Subshells (s,p,d,f,. ....) n=2 2 subshells 2s 2p n=1 1 subshell 1s C. Orbitals 1. 2 electrons/orbital 2. Distribution of orbitals in shells D. Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 1. s-spherical 2. 1s < 2s < 3s < 4s. ... 3. Each shell has 1 set of s orbitals 4. p-dumbbell-shaped. 5. 3 sets of p orbitals per shell (p_x, p_y, and p_z) 6. p orbitals are mutally perpendicular (on x axis, y axis, or z axis) E. Ground-State Electron Configuration of Atoms. 1. Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy 2. Two electrons per orbital 3. One electron is added to each equivalent orbital before a 2nd electron is
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added. F. Lewis Structures 1. Valence electrons 2. Valence Shell 1.2 Lewis Model of Bonding A. Formation of Ions 1. Octet rule: tendency to react to achieve an outer shell of 8 electrons
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2009 for the course CHM 231 taught by Professor Barrows during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State University.

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Chem 231 ch.1 Notes - Structure and Bonding 1. A Shells or principal energy levels(1,2,3 1.2n^2electrons/shell(n=#oftheshell 2. 3. n=12x1^2=2x1=2e

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