Chem231 Ch. 11 Notes

Chem231 Ch. 11 Notes - Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols, and...

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Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 11.1 On Handout. . 11.2 On Handout. . 11.3 Physical Properties A. Alcohols 1) Polar molecules (partial (+) and partial (-) charges) 2) Hydrogen bonding between alcohol molecules 3) Additional energy is required to overcome hydrogen bonding, so alcohols have high boiling points. 4) Alcohols hydrogen bond with water, so they are soluble in water. B. Ethers 1) Polar Molecules 2) No hydrogen bonding with ethers 3) Weak dipole-dipole interactions between ether molecules 4) Boiling points lower than alcohols 5) Hydrogen bond acceptors (more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable molecular weight) C. Phenols 11.4 Reactions of Alcohols A. Acidity of Alcohols 1) Weakly acidic 2) Methanol is more acidic than water 3) Form hydronium ions and alkoxide ions in the presence of water.
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4) Do not react with weak bases. B. Basicity of Alcohols 1) React with strong acids 2) Form oxonium ions and water. C. Dehydration of Alcohols to Alkenes 1) Dehydration: the elimination of water 2) Reagents: H2SO4 or H3PO4 and heat 3) Zaitsev's rule: alkene with the greater number of is the major product. 4) E1 Mechanism a) Step1: proton transfer from hydronium ion to form oxonium ion and water b) Step2 C-O bond breaks to from carbocation and water c) Step3 : proton transfer from the carbon adjacent to the positive charge to
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2009 for the course CHM 231 taught by Professor Barrows during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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Chem231 Ch. 11 Notes - Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols, and...

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