Objective Test #3

Objective Test #3 - #3 1.#1)Brain#2 Spinal Cord 2. Afferen

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Objectives for Nervous system Test #3 1. Name the two organs that comprise the central nervous system. #1) Brain #2) Spinal Cord 2. Differentiate between the terms afferent and efferent and compare the general directional flow of sensory information to the flow or motor signals. Afferent = IN Efferent = OUT 3. Draw a "typical" multipolar motor neuron and identify the cell body (soma/perikaryon), dendrites, axon and telodendria. Also, describe the major anatomical differences among unipolar, bipolar and multipolar neurons (draw a picture of each if necessary). 4. Describe the anatomical components of a synapse. The Synapse- point of junction between two neurons (or other cells) and consists of three elements: Pre-synaptic element: usually the axon terminal containing neurotransmitter molecules. Post-synaptic element: membranous region of another neuron or target cell that has receptors that bind the neurotransmitter released from the axon terminal. Synaptic cleft: very tiny space between the pre and post synaptic elements where the neurotransmitter is released into during process of neurotransmission. 5. Describe where clusters of neuronal cell bodies called ganglia are located describe
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the location of nuclei (think of their location relative to the CNS). Ganglia are groups of cell bodies (neurons) located outside the CNS. 6. Name 6 types of neuroglial cells and provide a very general function for each cell. - Ependymal Cells: coat brain and ventricles -Astrocytes: maintains blood-brain barrier by stimulating endothelial cells -Oligodendrocytes: In CNS, Make myelin. -Microglia: Phagocytic neuroglia -Schwann Cells: myelinates cells in PNS -Satellite Cells: support and surround neurons in PNS 7. Identify the axon, axon hillock, Schwann cell, internode and node of Ranvier on a myelinated axon. (DRAW) 8. Identify the five major regions of the spinal cord and, also, identify and describe the gross appearance of and/or location of the following structures: cervical and lumbar enlargements, conus medullaris, filum terminale, cauda equina, and lumbar cistern. 5 Major Regions of Spinal Cord: 1. Cervical Spinal cord and the 8 pairs of cervical spinal nerves 2. Thoracic spinal cord and the 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves 3. Lumbar spinal cord and the 5 pairs of spinal nerves 4. Sacral region of the spinal cord and the 5 pairs of sacral spinal nerves 5. Coccygeal region of the spinal cord and the 1 paired coccygeal spinal nerve. Location and Appearance of: 1. Cervical and Lumbar: Cervical located near neck, Lumbar located near butt. 2. Enlargements: Cervical enlargements: Located halfway between spinal cord in cervical region. Lumbar enlargements: located at very bottom of thoracic spinal cord and very top
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of lumbar spinal cord 3. Conus Medullaris: Where spinal cord ends at very bottom of T12 and top of L1 4. Filum Terminale: In coccygeal ligament. "Bungie cord" holding tip of spinal cord down b/c of gravity reasons 5. Cauda equina: (horses tail) located around L4 in lumbar
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Objective Test #3 - #3 1.#1)Brain#2 Spinal Cord 2. Afferen

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