irrigation - Irrigation is an attempt by man to locally...

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Irrigation is an attempt by man to locally alter the hydrologic cycle in order to promote increased agricultural productivity and to provide insurance against drought.
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Definitions of Drought: a) meteorological – based on the degree and length of no precipitation periods b) hydrologic – effects on surface and subsurface hydrology c) agricultural – is relative to the timing of dry periods and the impact on crops a) Socioeconomic – combination of a-c leading to personal hardship >>>> irrigation is used to fight drought
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Takes about 1000 kg of water to grow 1 kg of grain Takes about 2000 kg of water to grow 1 kg of rice >>> estimated that, in the U.S., it takes 620,000 gallons of water to grow one year’s food for one adult
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Global statistics on Irrigation: 1500 million hectares of land are dedicated to agriculture worldwide but only 20% is irrigated and these lands provide ~1/3 of the total agricultural production Asia – 86% of its water is used for irrigation Egypt – 98% of its water is used for irrigation
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The Irrigation Process SOURCE >>> TRANSFER >>> FIELD APPLICATION
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ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFT SOURCES 1) Groundwater withdrawal Overwithdrawal in excess of recharge Water table lowering Subsidence Saline water intrusion 2) Dammed rivers for reservoirs, water storage Impacts to fish migration Sediment retention Changes in hydrologic regime Loss of floodplains and wetlands 3 ) Riverine diversion Juvenile fish, invert entrainment in uptake pipes Changes in hydrologic regime
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Background framework- specifying the irrigation-crop relationship climate crop water requirement timing relative to crop demand plant density
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irrigation - Irrigation is an attempt by man to locally...

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