c13notes - A set of relatively enduring traits,...

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A set of relatively enduring traits, dispositions, or characteristics that give consistency to a person’s behavior. All personality theories developed within cultural contexts, but the influence of culture was not considered in personality theory until recently. Some psychologists look for cross- cultural differences in personality, such as variation on the individualistic- collectivist dimension, and others search for the universal personality. An approach to personality that focuses on how unconscious processes direct day-to-day behavior and affect personality formation. An Austrian physician (1856-1939) who developed the personality theory based on: three levels of consciousness, three basic structures of the mind, defense mechanisms, sexual and aggressive behaviors, and early childhood experiences. Conscious- the level of the mind that consists of those experiences that a person is aware of at any given time. Preconscious- the level of the mind that contains those experiences of which a person is not currently conscious but may become so, with varying degrees of difficulty. Unconscious- the level of the mind that consists of thoughts, urges, and memories that are not within a person’s awareness. Assessment instruments made up of a standard set of ambiguous stimuli that are presented to examinees, who are asked to respond to the stimuli in their own way. Id- the region of the mind that is the source of a person’s instinctual energy and that works mainly on the pleasure principle. Ego- the region of the mind that seeks to satisfy instinctual needs in accordance with reality. Superego- the region of the mind that comprises the ego ideal (what a person would ideally like to be) and the conscience (taught by parents and society) Oral Stage (birth to 2 years)-mouth- optimism, hostility, substance abuse Anal stage (2-3)-anus- excessive cleanliness, orderliness, or rebelliousness. Phallic stage (4-7)-genitals-vanity, promiscuity, chastity. Latency stage (7-puberty)-none-not specified. Genital stage (puberty onward)- genitals- not specified. A group of unconscious wishes to have sexual intercourse with the parent of the opposite sex and to kill or remove the parent of the same sex, which arise during Freud’s phallic stage and are ultimately resolved through identification with the parent of the same sex. In Freud’s theory, the instinctual and sexual life force that, working on the pleasure principle and seeking immediate gratification, energizes the Id. An unconscious way of reducing anxiety by
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2009 for the course PSY 201 taught by Professor Devree during the Spring '09 term at Hagerstown CC.

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c13notes - A set of relatively enduring traits,...

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