prackey2 - M. Reid, PHIL 211 Critical Thinking Fall 2007...

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M. Reid, PHIL 211 Critical Thinking Fall 2007 Test KEY Practice Test for Exam 2 Ch 3, 4, 5 (100 points, 1 pt ea) In Preparation for Exam 2  (Thursday) Answer key posted on BlackBoard before tomorrow Material from Chapter 3 Assess each of the following claims as probably true, probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 1. “In the early 1800s, bears were a nuisance to settlers in upstate New York.” —Smithsonian Probably true (credible source and claim does not conflict with our knowledge) 2. NO CHOLESTEROL! —Label on Crisco Corn Oil Probably true. Vegetable oils do not contain cholesterol, and even if you didn’t know that, such claims made by national brands are usually true (despite several famous exceptions). 3. “Mezzo-soprano Frederica von Stade’s two little girls always tried to keep her from singing in church because, they said, every time she did, everyone would turn around and stare at her.” —Joseph McLellan, in the Washington Post Probably true 4. “By age 30, roughly a quarter of men and women have discernably graying hair. Even so, only 28 percent of us ever become completely white haired.” —Lowell Ponte, Reader’s Digest Probably true 5. “Enough is enough! A national survey finds a majority of American adults do not support more restrictive or tougher anti-smoking measures.” —The Tobacco Institute
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Probably true, but you’d want to know more about the poll and the questions it asked before drawing any conclusions from it. (We suspect public opinion is changing rapidly on this subject.) 6. “In the near future look for floods in Britain which will culminate in the flooding of Parliament.” —A prediction made by Maitreya Swami, “The World Teacher,” in the News Release of the Tara Center , N. Hollywood, Calif. Probably false. We won’t get into the philosophical difficulties involved in attaching truth values to future contingent events. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claims made in the passages. 7.“Based on a survey of more than 100,000 people, Toshitaka Nomi and Alexander Besher have drawn up some startling conclusions about blood type and personality. If you are type O, you are probably aggressive and realistic. Type A? You are naturally industrious, detail-oriented, and peace-loving. Type B’s are creative and individualistic. AB’s tend to be rational, but moody. YOU ARE YOUR BLOOD TYPE presents detailed analysis of the different blood types and explores the compatibility between the different types.” —From a news release from Pocket Books about the first Western account “of the Japanese pop-phenomenon of blood-type analysis” According to the release, the principal author, T. Nomi, is carrying on his father’s work in blood-typing theory; Nomi’s qualifications are that he has written many articles on the theory, has made many TV appearances, and has sold five million
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prackey2 - M. Reid, PHIL 211 Critical Thinking Fall 2007...

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