Bio Exam 2 Notes

Bio Exam 2 Notes - Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology...

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Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Ecology : the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. 1. 52.1 Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs environmental decision making a. Organismal ecology : includes the subdisciplines of physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology. Concerned with how an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment. b. Population ecology : analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time c. Community ecology : examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization. d. Ecosystem ecology : emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment e. Landscape ecology : focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems f. Global ecology : examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere 2. 52.2 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species a. Dispersal and Distribution i. Dispersal : the movement of individuals away form their area of origin or from centers of high population density 1. Species Transplants: If a transplant is successful, then we can conclude that the potential range of the species is larger than its actual range; the species could live in certain areas where it currents does not b. Behavior and Habitat Selection: When individuals seem to avoid certain habitats, even when the habitats are suitable, the organism’s distribution may be limited by habitat selection behavior c. Biotic Factors i. Negative interactions with other organisms in the form of predation, parasitism, or competition inability to survive and reproduce ii. Survival and reproduction may be limited by the absence of other species on which the transplanted species depends iii. Presence/absence of food, resources, parasites, and competing organisms d. Abiotic Factors i. Abiotic factors vary in spatial heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity 1. Temperature a. Few organisms can maintain an active metabolism at very low or very high temperatures to live outside the temperature range for habitable by other life
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2. Water 3. Salinity a. Salt concentration of water in the environment affects the water balance of organisms through osmosis b. Osmoregulate 4. Sunlight a. In aquatic environments, every meter of water depth selectively absorbs about 45% of the red light and about 2% of the blue light passing though it b. Atmosphere is thinner at higher elevations, absorbing less UV radiation so sun’s rays are more likely to damage DNA and proteins in alpine environments 5. Rocks and Soil a. pH of soil and water can limit distribution of organisms directly, through extreme acidic or basic conditions, or indirectly, through the solubility of
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Bio Exam 2 Notes - Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology...

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