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Chapter_6__Multiphase_Systems_ppt

Chapter_6__Multiphase_Systems_ppt - CHAPTER 6 MULTIPHASE...

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Source: CHAPTER 6 MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS
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Source: Although chemical reactions are at the heart of many processes of interest to chemical engineers, most of individual operation in industrial processes do not involve reactions. Some process units accomplish physical separations , in which components of mixture are separated into two or more fractions. As a rule, separation processes involve two phases are easy to perform . It is difficult to separate different components of a single phase. The idea behind most processes designed to separate mixture components is therefore to get the components into different phases, and then to separate the phases.
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Source: Here are some examples of multiphase separation processes . Absorption or scrubbing process : a separation process involving a gas in contact with a liquid solution. For example, removal of sulfur dioxide from a gas stream. Distillation : a separation process exploits the difference in vapor pressure by partially vaporizing a liquid mixture, yielding a vapor relatively rich in some components and a residual liquid relatively rich in other components. For example, recovery of methanol from an aqueous solution .
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Source: Liquid extractio n : a separation process exploits the difference in the miscibility of certain com- ponents among different liquid solvent. For example, separation of paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons . Crystallization : a separation process exploits the difference in the freezing points of certain compo- nents. For example, separation of an isomeric mixture . Leaching : the operation of dissolving a component of a solid phase in a liquid solvent. For example, brewing a cup of coffee .
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Source: 6.1 SINGLE-COMPONENT PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 6.1a Phase Diagrams A phase diagram of a pure substance is a plot of one system variable against another that shows the condi- tions at which the substance exists as a solid, a liquid, and a gas. The most common of these diagrams plots pressure on the vertical axis versus temperature on the horizontal axis .
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Source: Phase diagram of CO 2 . Supercritical fluid
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Source: Phase diagram of H 2 O. A(vapor) B( V - L ) C(liquid) D( V - L ) E(vapor)
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Source:
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Source: The boundaries between the single-phase regions re- present the PT values at which two phases may coexist . Several familiar terms may be defined with reference to the phase diagram 1. If ( T , P ) falls on the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve, P is the vapor pressure of the substance at temperature T , and T is the boiling point of the substance at P . -- if P =1atm , T is called the normal boiling point of that substance. 2. If ( T , P ) falls on the solid-vapor equilibrium curve , P is the vapor pressure of the solid at temperature T , and T is the sublimation point of the substance at P .
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Source: 3. If ( T , P ) falls on the solid-liquid equilibrium curve, and T is the melting point or freezing point of the substance at P.
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