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2006 Dee U. Silverthorn 56 LAB 5: HEMATOLOGY AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT IN THE BLOOD OUTLINE OF ACTIVITIES I. Hematology A. Microscopy B. Blood Typing C. Determination of Hematocrit D. Determination of Hemoglobin II. Oxygen Transport in the Blood III. Pulse Oximeter OBJECTIVES 1. Review microscopy 2. Learn morphology and functions of all the blood cells 3. Learn to do a differential count 4. Learn ABO blood groups by performing a virtual blood typing procedure 5. Understand the requirements for blood transfusions 6. Define hematocrit 7. Understand the relationship between dissolved oxygen, oxygen bound to hemoglobin, and total blood oxygen; relate to own blood oxygen I. HEMATOLOGY Background Hematology is the study of the blood. Blood has a liquid component, the plasma , and a cellular component with different types of cells and cell fragments. Blood is the main transport route through the body for gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, for nutrients absorbed from the intestinal tract, for wastes produced by the cells, and for hormones, antibodies, and proteins. In today's lab you will analyze a blood smear for a differential white cell count. The total blood volume in a 70 kg man is about 8% of total body weight, or about 5 liters in volume. Of these 5 liters, 3 liters are plasma and 2 liters are occupied by the blood cells. Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood, consisting of water with protein, electrolytes, and various organic molecules such as glucose and triglycerides. The majority of the blood cells are the red blood cells or erythrocytes . The leukocytes and the platelets are the other cellular blood components. ERYTHROCYTES [red + cell] are the most abundant cellular component in blood; there are about 5 billion per ml. They are biconcave disks, 7 μ diameter and 1-2 μ thickness. Their primary function is to carry O 2 and CO 2 . Red blood cell synthesis or erythropoiesis [red + creation] in adults takes place in the axial skeleton (spine, ribs, pelvis) and in the proximal ends of long bones. The immature erythrocytes are nucleated forms. The earliest form is a large cell with a large nucleus (12-20 μ). In the intermediate form, the nucleus has become more compact and hemoglobin , the oxygen carrying pigment that gives the erythrocyte its characteristic color, appears. In the late immature forms, the nucleus is very small and there is more hemoglobin. These immature forms are all found in the marrow and are not normally seen in peripheral blood smears.
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2006 Dee U. Silverthorn 57 The next step in erythrocyte formation is the anucleate reticulocyte . Some of these cells will appear in blood and can be recognized by their network of precipitated RNA which stains blue with Wright's stain. The reticulocyte synthesizes more hemoglobin, loses its mitochondria and RNA, and shrinks to become the mature RBC. Red blood cell synthesis is under the control of the hormone erythropoietin , which is produced in the kidney. Because hemoglobin is responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, the hemoglobin
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