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16 2006 Dee U. Silverthorn LAB 2: HEART SOUNDS, ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, AND BLOOD PRESSURE OUTLINE OF ACTIVITIES I. Introduction to Biopac using finger pulse II. Heart Sounds III. Human ECG A. Baseline Recordings B. Effect of Breath-holding (Apnea) C. Electrical Axis of the Heart IV. Blood Pressure OBJECTIVES 1. Learn the basics of Biopac 2. Explain what causes heart sounds and how they are related to events in the cardiac cycle 3. Demonstrate how to listen for heart sounds 4. Demonstrate basic 3-lead electrocardiography 5. Define systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, mean blood pressure 6. Explain how it is possible to estimate arterial pressure using a sphygmomanometer 7. Explain the cause of Korotkoff sounds 8. Demonstrate the correct procedure for taking blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer I. INTRODUCTION TO BIOPAC using finger pulse This lab will be using BIOPAC, a computerized data acquisition system, to record physiological data. A variety of transducers attached to the Biopac box convert sound, pressure, and flow into electrical signals that will appear on the computer screen as a graph. Using the program’s tools, you will be able to automatically measure the strength (amplitude) and duration of various physiological events. In this first activity you will use the pre-set Biopac program for ECG, heart sounds, and pulse to learn about the features of the program and how to manipulate them. 1. Go to BIOPRO folder on the desktop and open the ECG file inside. This will automatically launch Biopac and take you to a program with pre-set options for this ECG lab. 2. Compare the screen you see to the figure below and find the following items:
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17 2006 Dee U. Silverthorn This ECG lab has 5 channels that automatically appear. You see a label on the left side of each channel. Toward the upper left of the screen you see the channel numbers in buttons whose colors match the channel. In this program the channels are: 1 = ECG 2 = pulse monitor 3 = heart sounds 40 = heart rate calculated from ECG 41 = heart rate calculated from pulse. 3. For this tutorial, you should now hide all but channel 2. To HIDE CHANNEL, hold the CTRL key and click the channel number button. Once you have hidden channels 1, 3, 40, and 41, you will have only channel 2 left on the screen. 4. The right side of each channel has the vertical (y-axis) scale of the graph. What are the units for the vertical scale of channel 2? __________________ Across the bottom of the screen is the time scale. What are the units for the time scale? __ ________ __ To CHANGE SCALE, click in the grey scale bar. A scaling window appears where you can change settings. (Don’t change anything now. ..CANCEL out of the window.) 5. The grey area at the top of the channel is where markers will appear when you start a recording or when you add one. ADD MARKER by placing the pointer in that area and clicking once.
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