Homework #3 - Tammie Tse 1 BME 301 - Schmidt Problem Set #3...

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Tammie Tse BME 301 - Schmidt 1 Problem Set #3 1. WaterAid a. Statistics i. 884 million people in the world do not have access to safe water. This is roughly one in eight of the world's population. ii. 1.8 million children die every year as a result of diseases caused by unclean water and poor sanitation. This amounts to around 5000 deaths a day. b. Sustainable technologies i. Rainwater Harvesting 1. There is a scope where rainwater falls regularly to collect it, before evaporation takes place and before it becomes contaminated. 2. Water is generally collected from pre-cleaned roofs, where it runs via guttering into a storage tank. 3. Falling rainwater is some of the cleanest naturally occurring water available ii. Hand-dug Wells 1. Hand-dug wells are the most common method of abstracting groundwater in the developing world. 2. Hand-dug wells are usually 1.2m in diameter to allow sufficient digging space. Depths vary, from shallow wells at 5m to deep wells over 20m, but all are deep enough to ensure the water table can still be reached during the dry season. 3. Hand-dug wells are also lined to prevent pollution and make them more stable - particularly those built in the dry seasons which are liable to collapse in the wet season. iii. Tubewells with Handpumps
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Tammie Tse BME 301 - Schmidt 2 1. Tubewells are small diameter holes drilled by hand-powered methods of auguring and sludging. 2. Although hand-dug wells can retain more water, tubewells can be built quickly and cheaply, require less maintenance, can reach greater depths and are safer to construct. 3. Where there are harder rocks and the water table is very low, engine-driven augers and rock drills are necessary to cut through the earth to depths of 100m or more. c. Technologies being implemented i. Pit latrines are outdoor commodes built above the water tables to prevent families from simply defecating “out in the bush.” ii. A single pit latrine only has one pit for waste deposit, and basically requires removal more often. Twin pit latrines have two pits for deposit and require removal after about one year. Twins also have 2 pit squats that will allow two people to go if need
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course BME 301 taught by Professor Schmidt during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.

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Homework #3 - Tammie Tse 1 BME 301 - Schmidt Problem Set #3...

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