Week 5 Group and Individual ANTH 101-2

Week 5 Group and Individual ANTH 101-2 - Growing up Human...

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Growing up Human What is enculturation? What is the effect of enculturation on adult personality? Are different personalities characteristic of different cultures? Do cultures differ in what they regard as abnormal personalities?
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The Self and its Behavioral Environment We have already learned that culture is always learned Enculturation: the process by which a society’s culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and through which individuals become members of their society enculturation begins immediately, after birth (some believe it begins before birth, but that has yet to be proven--for example, playing classical music to the fetus, etc.) humanity's major agents of enculturation at birth are: the mother and a male figure typically it is only the mother who enculturates the infants among humans, different societies have developed different cultural models for including the males in the process of enculturation predominant is where the father is included in some way in the process the father can be substituted by: father's brothers, mother's brothers, or grandfather(s) others involved in the fundamental levels of the enculturation process: mother's sisters siblings, mother's mother, father's mother, members of the central family unit later, peer groups play a dominant role
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THE SELF People are not born with an ability to separate themselves from the environment not born to see themselves as an object not born to react to themselves not born to appraise or evaluate their selves they have to learn to do this they learn this through development of self- awareness self-awareness: the ability to identify oneself as an object, to react to oneself, and to appraise oneself Example The age at which distinction between self and non-self differs between societies Children in US: about 2 years old true in most Western countries Children in non-Western world: typically earlier
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THE BEHAVIORAL ENVIRONMENT understanding the objective environment as well as the subjective self culturally-organized that is, it is all perceived mediated symbolically through language through cultural glasses people seem to need to maintain order in their perception of the world order clarifies things—reduces ambiguity and uncertainty based on this culturally-constructed order, people structure their societies in culturally-specific and culturally-appropriate ways Objects, time, space—all organized culturally Objects, time, scapula invested with normative orientations Normative orientation—values , ideals, standards of a society always culturally-specific again, remember New Guinean vs. Australian worldview in First Contact
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Personality personality: the distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves people develop cognitive maps of the way they behave—behavioral maps based on norms of behavior
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Week 5 Group and Individual ANTH 101-2 - Growing up Human...

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