PsychFinalReview - Module 8 Prenatal Development and the...

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Module 8 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Conception Developmental psychologists study physical, mental, and social changes throughout the life span. only one sperm can penetrate the egg’s coating. Within 12 hours, the nuclei of the sperm and egg fuse into a single cell. Prenatal Development zygote: fertilized egg. conception to 2 weeks. embryo: 2 weeks-8 weeks. fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. teratogens: harmful agents such as certain viruses and drugs that can reach the embryo. The Competent Newborn Infants are born with a number of automatic responses that aid survival. Also they are more responsible to sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. Module 9 Infancy and Childhood Physical Development Brain Development The newborn has the most number of brain cells, but then it subsides. Growth is most pronounced in the frontal lobes between age 3 and 6, then association areas of the cortex enabling thinking, memory and language. Brain pathways develop until puberty, when pruning eliminates excess connections. Maturation—the orderly sequence of genetically determined biological processes. Guides all infants along the general course of development. Motor Development Same sequence for babies: rolling over sitting unsupported crawling walking. Experience has very little experience. Maturation and infant Memory
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Preverbal memories are not easily transformed into language. Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking Children form schemas (concepts for organizing experience), which they used to assimilate information. If new information doesn’t fit, they accommodate the schema. Stages Age Description Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth to 2 Experiencing through senses and actions Object permanence (after 6 months) Stranger anxiety Preoperational 2 to 6 Representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language Development Concrete Operational 7 to 11 Thinking logically; grasping analogies and performing arithmetic operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal Operational 12 to adultho od Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for mature moral reasoning Object permanence—the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. Egocentrism—difficulty taking another’s point of view. Conservation—the principle that properties remain the same despite changes in form. Theory of mind—people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states. Autism—a disorder that appears in child-hood and is marked by deficient communication, social
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Maas, j during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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PsychFinalReview - Module 8 Prenatal Development and the...

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