Nov. 19 slides

Nov. 19 slides - The
Republic
and
the
Birth
of
...

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Unformatted text preview: The
Republic
and
the
Birth
of
 Modern
China
 Today’s
Topics
 •  Fall
of
the
Qing/Beginning
of
the
Republic
 •  New
Culture
Movement
and
the
May
4th
 Movement
 •  CreaBng
a
New
PoliBcal
Center:

the
1920s
 and
30s
 –  NaBonalists,
Communists
and
Warlords
 •  The
2nd
Sino‐Japanese
War
and
the
World
War
 II
 Fall
of
the
Qing/
 Beginning
of
the
Republic
 •  Reformers
and
 RevoluBonaries
 –  Sun
Yatsen
(1866‐1925)
 •  
 Three
principles
of
the
 people:

 
 
 
NaBonalism 

 
 
 
Democracy

 
 
 
Livelihood
 •  RevoluBonary
alliance
 The
Republic
 •  ConsBtuBonal
government
 –  Yuan
Shikai
 •  Warlord
period
(1916‐1928)
 –  No
strong
central
power
 –  Territories
conquered
by
Qing
declare
 independence
 –  Warlords
waged
regional
wars,
period
of
 insecurity
 Chinese
dynasBes
had
risen
and
fallen
for
 more
than
two
millenia
before
the
end
of
 the
Qing
dynasty.


 1.  How
was
the
decline
of
the
Qing
dynasty
 similar
to
the
decline
of
previous
 dynasBes?

Can
you
think
of
specific
 examples?

 2.  In
what
ways
was
the
situaBon
at
the
end
 of
the
Qing
dynasty
different
than
in
 previous
dynasBc
declines?
 Efforts
to
“Save”
China
 •  Young
intellectuals
 –  Hu
Shi,
Lu
Xun
 –  New
Youth
 •  Goal:

Get
rid
of
old,
outmoded
ideas
and
create
 a
new
China
 –  RejecBon
of
Confucianism
and
symbols
of
the
old
 system,
e.g.
Classical
language
 –  Interest
in
Western
thought
and
ideas:
democracy,
 freedom,
equality
 –  CelebraBon
of
youth 

 May
4th,
1919
 •  At
Treaty
of
Versailles,
Allies
support
interests
 of
Japan
over
China
 •  Wave
of
student
protests
and
worker
strikes
 •  China
refuses
to
sign
Treaty
 •  With
New
Culture
Movement,
it
sets
tone
for
 cultural
policies
for
next
two
decades:
 –  
naBonalism,
patrioBsm,
progress,
science,
 democracy,
freedom

 
Our
task
today
can
be
said
to
be
the
intense
combat
between
the
old
and
 the
modern
currents
of
thought.
Those
with
shallow
views
all
expect
this
to
be
 our
final
awakening,
without
understanding
how
difficult
it
is
to
put
 [consBtuBonal
government]
into
pracBce...
There
is
no
difference
between
the
 shameful
disgrace
of
submissiveness
of
men
of
ancient
Bmes
hoping
that
sage
 rulers
and
wise
ministers
will
pracBce
benevolent
government
and
present
day
 men
hoping
that
dignitaries
and
influenBal
elders
will
build
a
consBtuBonal
 republic.
Why
should
I
reject
the
desires
of
dignitaries
and
influenBal
elders,
 who
are
amer
all
a
part
of
the
people,
to
build
a
consBtuBonal
republic?
Only
 because
a
consBtuBonal
republic
cannot
be
conferred
by
the
government,
 cannot
be
maintained
by
one
party
or
one
group,
and
certainly
cannot
be
 carried
on
the
backs
of
a
few
dignitaries
and
influenBal
elders.
A
consBtuBonal
 republic
which
does
not
derive
from
the
conscious
realizaBon
and
voluntary
 acBon
of
the
majority
of
the
people
is
a
bogus
republic
and
bogus
 consBtuBonalism.
It
is
poliBcal
window‐dressing,
in
no
way
like
the
republican
 consBtuBonalism
of
the
countries
of
Europe
and
America,
because
there
has
 been
no
change
inthe
thought
or
the
character
of
the
majority
of
the
people,
 and
the
majority
of
the
people
have
no
personal
feeling
of
direct
material
 interest.

 What
was
the
significance
of
the
New
 Culture
and
May
4th
movements?

 What
lasBng
changes
did
they
 introduce
into
Chinese
culture
and
 society?
 1920s
and
30s:

 CreaBng
a
New
PoliBcal
Center
 •  NaBonalist
Party
(Guomingdang)
 –  Sun
Yatsen
 –  Jiang
Jieshi
(Chiang
Kai‐shek)
 •  Chinese
Communist
Party
(CCP)
 –  AdapBng
Marxism‐Leninism
to
China
 –  The
role
of
Russian
advisors
(Comintern)
 •  The
Northern
ExpediBon
(1926)
 –  United
front
against
warlordism
and
imperialism
 •  The
Nanjing
decade
(1927‐37)
 The
Japanese
Invasion
 •  Japanese
aggression
 –  1895
Japan
took
Taiwan
 –  1928
AssassinaBon
of
Manchurian
warlord
 –  1932
arack
on
Shanghai

 –  Puppet
government
in
Manchukuo
 •  1937‐
“Rape
of
Nanjing”
and
beginning
of
2nd
 Sino‐Japanese
War
 •  NaBonalist
retreat
to
Western
China
 (Chongqing)
 •  What
are
the
three
most
important
 things
to
remember
from
today’s
 lecture?
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Fall '08 term at Arizona.

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