Oct. 6 slides - Sui
and
Tang
Reunifica.on:


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Unformatted text preview: Sui
and
Tang
Reunifica.on:
 The
founda.ons
of
empire
 Today’s
Topics
 •  From
the
Middle
Ages
to
the
Tang
(via
the
Sui
 dynasty)
 •  The
Periodiza.on
of
the
Tang
dynasty
 •  Bases
for
imperial
expansion
 •  Early
Tang
emperors
and
Empress
Wu
 The
Sui
Reunifica3on
(589‐617)
 •





Centralized
government
in
a
reunified
empire:

bigger
bureaucracy
 –  Condi.ons
for
reunifica.on
already
in
place
 •  Began
work
that
would
be
finished
in
the
Tang
 –  Construc.on
of
canals
and
granaries
 –  Capitals
 –  Territorial
expansion:
land
and
sea
expedi.ons
 •





Tolerated
&
used
all
three
belief
systems:

Confucianism
for
 government,
Daoism
&
Buddhism
as
religious
support
for
 reign
 The
Tang
Conquest
 •





Who
did
it?
 –


Li
Yuan
(Tang
Gaozu)
&
son
Li
Shimin
(Tang
Taizong);
only
part
Chinese —a
blend
of
northern
non‐Chinese
&
Han
Chinese
ancestors
 •





How?
 –


Military
skill
won
the
empire
 –


Confucian
gov’t
&
good
advisors
stabilized
it
(con.nued
Sui
poli.cal
 reforms)
 –


Religion,
educa.on
&
culture
reunified
northern
&
southern
 civiliza.ons
 The
Periods
of
the
Tang
 •





The
“early”
and
“High”
Tang:

618‐755
 •





The
An
Lu‐shan
Rebellion
(755‐763)
splits
the
Tang
in
two— a
great
blow
to
the
most
powerful
empire
in
the
world
 •





The
“middle”
and
“late”
Tang:

763‐907
 Think,
pair,
share
 The
Tang
dynasty
was
a
.me
of
great
territorial
expansion
unseen
since
the
 age
of
the
Han
dynasty
some
400
years
earlier.

In
looking
at
the
map
of
 territory
under
Chinese
control
during
the
Tang
dynasty,
what
can
you
guess
 needed
to
be
in
place
in
order
to
administer
such
a
huge
expanse
of
land?

 Think
in
terms
of
ins.tu.onal,
economic
and
cultural
factors.
 Tang
expansion:

 economic
and
ins.tu.onal
bases
 •  •  •  •  Administra.ve
system
 Legal
system
 Armies
and
horse
breeding
 Big
public
works
 –  Canal
system:
communica.on
 –  Capitals
 Administra.ve
system
 •  Rela.vely
autonomous
 •  Central
administra.on:
housed
in
the
capital
 –  Dept.
of
State
Affairs
 –  Imperial
Chancellory
 –  Imperial
Grand
Sectretariat
 –  Council
of
State
 •  Provincial
administra.on
 Legal
system
 •  Unifying
the
state
through
use
of
laws
 –  Tang
code
(compiled
in
624)
 •  Blending
legalism
with
Confucian
values
 –  Con.nued
importance
of
family
system
 Tang
code:
Ten
abomina.ons
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Plohng
rebellion
 Plohng
great
sedi.on
 Plohng
treason
 Depravity
 Great
irreverence
 Lack
of
filiality
 Not
right
 Incest
 Armies
and
horse
breeding
 •  
Aristocra.c
families
 with
military
tradi.ons
 •  Military
organiza.on
 –  Capital
armies
 –  Fron.er
garrisons
 •  Horse‐breeding
and
 territorial
expansion
 Public
Works
 •  
Canal
system
 o 
communica.on:
 poli.cal
and
strategic
 o Commercial
traffic
 o 
role
in
economic
 development
of
8th
and
 9th
centuries
 Capital
ci3es
 • 
Chang’an
 • 
Loyang
 Significance
of
early
developments
for
 the
Tang
empire

   provided
infrastructure
for
expansion
 –  Easier
to
communicate,

 –  Easier
to
move
goods
across
land—supply
capitals,
 supply
outlying
troop
garrisons,

 –  Easier
movement
of
troops
(horses)
 –  Easier
to
administer
outlying
areas
 •  Provided
counterweight
to
emperor
and
his
 family:

 –  rule
by
law
and
legal
administra.on
and
not
by
 autocra.c
decision‐making
 For
Wednesday 

 •  What
other
developments
led
to
the
Tang
 dynasty
being
considered
a
“golden
age”
of
 tradi.onal
culture?
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Fall '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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