Sept. 3 slides

Sept. 3 slides - The
Founda ons
of
Chinese
Civiliza...

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Unformatted text preview: The
Founda+ons
of
Chinese
Civiliza+on:
 Ancestors,
Dynas.es,
and
Wri.ng
(Shang
and
Zhou)
 Today’s
topics 

 •  •  •  •  Chinese
Geography:
The
Basics
 Ruler,
Heaven
and
Man
 The
concept
of
Wen
(文)
 Ritual
culture
 Chinese
Geography:
 The
Basics
 Land
mass
 Chinese
Geography:
 The
Basics
 Topography
 Chinese
Geography:
 The
Basics
 Major
 waterways
 • Yellow
River
 • Yangtze
River
 (Long
River)
 Chinese
Geography:
 The
Basics
 Regions
 • Temperate
 • Sub‐tropical
 • Tropical
 Think‐Pair‐Share 
 

 •  How
might
China’s
physical
geography
have
 affected
the
way
China
developed
as
a
 civiliza.on?

(Make
an
educated
guess,
based
on
what
 you’ve
just
learned).
 Ruler
and
people
 •





Dynasty:


 –  Rule
by
a
single
clan

 –  handed
down
through
the
father‐son
lineage
of
 that
clan
 –  Set
paTern
for
later
periods
 Timeline
of
Chinese
History
 Chinese
Dynas.es 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe
 –  Xia,
Shang
 –  Zhou





























Ancient
 –  Han
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Roman
Empire
 –  Period
of
Division
 –  Sui
































Medieval
 –  Tang
 –  Song 
 
 

 –  Yuan 
 
 











Early
Modern 

 –  Ming 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Renaissance
 –  Qing 
 
 











Late
imperial
 Timeline
of
Early
Chinese
History
 •  •  •  •  Xia
dynasty:
2205?‐1554?
B.
C.
 Shang
dynasty:
1554?‐1045/1040
B.
C
 Western
Zhou:
1045/1040‐771
B.
C
 Eastern
Zhou:
 –  Spring
and
Autumn:
722‐481
B.
C
 –  The
Warring
States:
403‐221
B.
C
 Heaven,
gods
and
ancestors 

 •  Importance
of
Ancestors
 –  Past
as
source
of
biological,
poli.cal
and
religious
 iden.ty
 –

Ancestral
rituals
showed
extent
of
ruler’s
power
 over
the
living

 Heaven,
gods
and
ancestors:
 
“Di”
and
“Heaven”
 •  “Di”
(Shang)
 –  Highest
deity
in
the
 pantheon
 –  May
have
been
a
 divinized
ancestor
 –  Not
always
benevolent
 –  
Very
distant
&
awe‐ inspiring
 •  Heaven
(Zhou)
 –  Not
at
all
 anthropomorphic
 –  Far
removed
from
 human
realm
 –  Agent
of
good
&
order
 –  Very
distant,
but
not
as
 fearsome
as
Di
 Ruler
and
people
 •  No
separa.on
between
religious
and
poli.cal
 responsibili.es
 –  Communica.on
with
spirits,
ancestors
 –  Link
between
heaven
and
earth
 •  Religious
authority
as
poli.cal
authority
 –  Poli.cal
stability
 –  Maintain
clan
authority,
social
order
 Ruler
and
authority:
Oracle
bones
 •  Divina.on
 •  Ruler’s
access
to
truth,
ability
to
communicate
with
heaven
 and
ancestors
 Oracle
bones
 Mandate
of
Heaven
 •  A
ruler
and
a
dynasty’s
virtuous
conduct
 jus.fies
his/its
hold
on
power
 •  
If
a
formerly
virtuous
dynasty
becomes
 unjust,
it
lays
itself
open
to
rebellion
 •  Maintaining
the
Mandate
requires
constant
 self‐review
and
self‐correc.on
 “Minute
Paper”
 •  Write
for
one
minute
on
the
following
ques.on:
 •  Why
was
lineage
so
important
in
early
China?
 Your
response
will
be
counted
as
an
in‐class
exercise
for
 credit.

Please
be
sure
to
put
your
name,
date
and
 sec.on
number
on
your
paper
and
turn
it
in
to
the
 correct
box
in
the
back
of
the
room
before
you
leave.
 Meanings
and
Significance

 •
“PaTern”
(original
meaning)
 –  PaTerns
in
nature

 •  e.g.
.ger
stripes
 Wen
文:

 –  Human
paTerns

 •  e.g.
decora.on
on
bronze
vessels
 •  “Wri.ng
or
script”,
i.e.,
“paTerns”
of
language
 (late
Shang‐early
Zhou)
 Wen
文
 •  “Culture”
or
“civilized”
 –  
 wen
(civil
affairs)
and
wu
武
(military
affairs)

 The
“Classics”
 •  Book
of
Songs
 –  Ancient
poetry
collec.on
 •  Themes
of
love,
war,
harvest
 •  Ritual
poetry—performed
in
ancestor
worship
 –  Basis
of
educa.on,
storehouse
of
knowledge
 •  Book
of
Documents
 –  Speeches
of
early
kings
and
ministers
 –  Founda.on
of
poli.cal
philosophy
 Ritual
Culture
 •  Where
wen,
religion
and
poli.cs
met
 Religion
and
poli.cs
 Religion
and
poli.cs
 Wen
 Compare
and
contrast
 Summary 

 •  How
might
the
ideas
and
beliefs
of
early
China
 be
important
to
an
understanding
of
Chinese
 civiliza.on
in
later
ages?
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Fall '08 term at Arizona.

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