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Unformatted text preview: "Confucians"
a,er
Confucius:

 Mencius
and
Xunzi
 From
last
class…
 •  Recap
of
the
main
significance
of
Confucius
 and
his
ideas
in
The
Analects
 Today’s
Topics
 •  Warring
States
a,er
Confucius:


 – ContribuDons
of
Confucius
 – Problems
Confucius
didn’t
solve
 •  Confucius’s
successors
and
their
answers
 – Mencius
 – Xunzi
 Impact
of
Confucius’
innovaDons
on
 the
late
Warring
States
period
 •  Confucianism
as
a
tradiDon
 •  Teacher‐student
relaDonship
 •  Role
of
educaDon
in
preparaDon
for
poliDcal
 office
 –  Greater
social
mobility
 Confucianism
a,er
Confucius
 •  Schools
 –  “Geneaologies”
of

master‐student
relaDonships
 Problems
unresolved
 •  QuesDon
of
human
nature:
Good?
Bad?
Both?
 Neither?
 •  Metaphysical
quesDons:
What
is
the
mind?
 What
is
existence?
 •  Religious
quesDons:

How
do
we
know
about
 spirits
or
divine
beings?

What
is
the
a,erlife
 like?
 A,er
Confucius:


 The
social
and
poliDcal
landscape
 •  Diversity:
poliDcal,
social
 •  More
violence,
greater
suffering
 Mencius:
the
man
and
the
book
 •  4th
cent.
BC
 •  Second
great
figure
in
Confucian
thought
 •  Strong
personality
 •  CollecDon
of
idealized
conversaDons
 •  Use
of
examples
and
analogies
to
develop
 ideas
 Mencius
on
Human
Nature
 •  People
good
at
birth,
but
get
corrupted
 •  Four
“beginnings”
or
“buds”
 –  Humaneness
(ren)
 –  Propriety
(yi)
 –  Righteousness
(li)
 –  Capacity
to
know
[good
from
bad]
(zhi)
 •  Importance
of
culDvaDon‐human
perfecDbility
 Mencius
and
PoliDcal
Theory
 •  State=logical
culminaDon
of
natural
human
 relaDonships
 •  When
ruler
fails
to
rule
justly,
he
is
no
longer
a
 true
“ruler”
and
people
have
the
right
to
resist
 •  Humanist:

People
as
the
ulDmate
standard
to
 judge
government
 Exercise
 •  “Mencius
said,
‘Words
without
reality
are
ill‐ omened,
and
the
reality
of
the
ill‐omened
will
 befall
those
who
stand
in
the
way
of
good
 people.’”
(4B.17)
 •  “Mencius
said,
‘A
great
man
is
one
who
retains
 the
heart
of
a
new‐born
babe.’”
(4B.12)
 Xunzi:
the
man
and
the
book
 •  3rd
cent.
BC
 •  2nd
great
Confucian
philosopher
 •  Government
official
 •  PoliDcal
and
philosophical
essays
 •  Orderly
and
well‐developed
arguments
 Xunzi
on
Human
Nature
 •  Human
nature
is
bad
 •  Replace
bad
animal
nature
with
good
nature
 of
society=civilizaDon
 •  Importance
of
culDvaDon
and
educaDon— human
perfecDbility
 Xunzi:
PoliDcal
Theory 

 •  Ethical
universe
and
values
 •  Government
for
the
benefit
of
the
people
 •  Need
strong,
even
authoritarian,
central
 government
 •  Importance
of
social
convenDons,
enforced
by
 the
state,
to
create
social
harmony
 •  Significance
of
li

 Mencius
Says
&
Xunzi
Says
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Everyone
delights
in
doing
good.
 Moral
sense
is
innate.
 Restrict
yourself
and
avoid
self‐interest
by
conscious
acDvity.
 Submit
to
norms
and
standards
to
develop
your
goodness.
 Prior
to
educaDon
we
have
a
tendency
toward
being
moral.
 Government
for
the
people.
 We
are
morally
blind
and
deluded
at
birth.
 Prior
to
educaDon
(learning)
we
are
purely
led
by
physical
desire.
 Strive
toward
the
good.
 Improve
and
reflect
on
what
you
already
have.
 Develop
a
moral
sense.
 Morality
comes
naturally.
 Summary
 •  In
what
way
or
ways
are
both
Mencius
and
 Xunzi
“Confucian”?
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Fall '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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