M3_3-student - Unit 3 How do we determine structure Module...

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Chemistry XXI Unit 3 How do we determine structure? Module 3: Inferring Charge Distribution Central goal: To infer electron charge distribution in a molecule based on both differences of electronegativity between bonded atoms and molecular geometry.
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Chemistry XXI The Challenge The next step in the path to prediction of the properties of molecular compound involves the analysis of the actual distribution of valence electrons among different atoms. Composition Connectivity Geometry Charge Distribution How can we identify regions of high or low electron density in a molecule? How can we use charge distribution to predict how a molecule will interact with light or other molecules? High electron density Low electron density Modeling How do I explain it?
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Chemistry XXI Explaining Attractions How would you explain this behavior? Let’s think
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Chemistry XXI Bond Polarity The uneven charge distribution results from different types of atoms in a bond attracting electrons with different strength. H Cl Electrons in the bond spend more time closer to the Cl atom. For example, in the HCl molecule: We say that Cl is more electronegative than H , and that the bond is polar .
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Chemistry XXI Electronegativity Electronegativity , χ , is a measure of the ability of an atom in a bond to attract electrons to itself.
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