U1_M2_HW-key - Module 2- Key 1. The following tables...

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Module 2- Key 1. The following tables summarize data gathered at various altitudes in the atmosphere and at various depths in the hydrosphere. Atmosphere Hydrosphere (middle latitudes) Altitude (km) Temperature (K) Pressure (atm) Depth (km) Temperature (K) Pressure (atm) 0 293 1.0 0 293 1.0 1 287 0.883 0.1 290 11 2 280 0.779 0.2 279 21 3 273 0.687 0.3 278 31 4 267 0.607 0.4 277.4 41 5 261 0.536 0.5 276.9 51 10 228 0.287 0.6 276.3 61 12 213 0.224 0.7 275.8 71 20 220 0.082 0.8 275.3 81 30 235 0.024 0.9 275.1 91 40 255 0.0067 1.0 275.0 101 50 275 0.0020 60 247 0.00095 a) In what ways is an analogy involving an “ocean of gases” useful in thinking about the atmosphere? In what ways does that analogy not apply to the behavior of the atmosphere? Compare the patterns in the temperature and pressure data for the atmosphere and the hydrosphere to justify your answers. Both the ocean and the atmosphere have properties like temperature and pressure that depend on position (height or depth). For the atmosphere, the temperature and pressure both decrease with increasing altitude. For the ocean, the pressure increases and the temperature decreases with depth. b) Imagine that you model your lungs as a 5 L sealed balloon at sea level: Will the volume of your lungs increase or decrease as you climb up to the top of a mountain at 5 km above the sea level? Assume that the temperature of your body will adjust to the surrounding temperature as you ascend. (Would you change your answer if the temperature of your body remained constant?) Keep in mind that, in general, your breathing adjusts to keep the same number of moles of air in your lungs at different altitudes. Estimate the volume of your lungs at the top of the mountain . If a sealed 5 L balloon being raised to 5 km, you have an external pressure drop and a temperature drop. Both have opposite effects on the internal pressure of the balloon (and hence the volume). The external pressure change is much more significant proportionally than the temperature drop so the balloon would expand. So in theory, you lungs would also expand. If the temperature were to remain constant, then the effect would still be the same. Using the 5 L sealed balloon model, you could estimate a volume change by using PV=nRT. The new volume would be around 8.3L.
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Will the volume of your lungs increase or decrease as you dive down into the ocean to 100 m below sea level? Assume that the temperature of your body will adjust to the surrounding temperature as you descend (Would you change your answer if the temperature of your body remained constant?) Keep in mind that, in general, your breathing adjusts to keep the same number of moles of air in your lungs at different depths. Estimate the volume of your lungs at the bottom of your diving. When you dive down into the ocean, the external pressure increases and the temperature drops.
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2009 for the course CHEM 151 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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U1_M2_HW-key - Module 2- Key 1. The following tables...

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