protocol15_ENG

protocol15_ENG - Protocol No 15 AUTOSOMAL INHERITANCE...

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Protocol No. 15 AUTOSOMAL INHERITANCE Monohybrid cross - a mating between two individuals, both of which are genetically identical heterozygotes at one given locus. Character , or trait , - any detectable phenotypic property of an organism. It is controlled by the alleles on one or more gene loci (in cooperation with environmental conditions). In a diploid organism, the monogenic character is determined by a single gene. Allele - one of a set of alternative forms of gene. In a diploid cell , each gene will have two alleles, each occupying the same position (locus) on homologous chromosomes. Gene - a region of DNA that controls discrete hereditary characteristics of an organism, usually corresponding to a single protein or RNA Genotype - set of genes carried by an individual cell or organism Phenotype – set of all detectable characters of organism. It’s a result of interaction of genotype and environment. Heterozygous - an organism with dissimilar alleles for any one gene Homozygous - describes an organism having identical alleles for a given gene Homologous chromosome – one of the two copies of a particular chromosome in a diploid cell, one from the father and one from the mother In the expression of each character, three types of allele interaction can be distinguished: Codominance – both alleles of a pair are fully expressed in the heterozygote. Complete dominance – refers to alleles that fully manifest their phenotype when present in heterozygous state. The alleles whose phenotypic expressions are masked by dominant alleles are termed recessive alleles. Incomplete dominance
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protocol15_ENG - Protocol No 15 AUTOSOMAL INHERITANCE...

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