BIO REVIEW, PART ONE - Biology: Exam One Review Checklist...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology: Exam One Review Checklist Chapter One: Exploring Life Life Intangible quality that defies any simple definition; quality that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms or non-living objects Characteristics of Life Composed of Cells Complex and Organized Acquire and Use Materials and Energy Regulate Internal Environment Respond to Environment Grow and Develop Reproduce Capacity to Evolve Hierarchy of biological organization 1. The biosphere 2. ecosystems 3. communities 4. species 5. populations 6. organisms 7. organ systems 8. organs 9. tissues 10. cells 11. organelles 12. molecules 13. Atom 14. Subatomic particles Emergent properties With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that are not present at the level just below. These emergent properties are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. New properties arise with each step in the biological hierarchy Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts Emerge as we combine different components together to form a system Discovery (descriptive) science Discovery science describes natural structures and processes are accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data. Describing nature through careful observation and analysis of data Inductive Reasoning: - A type of logic in which generalizations are based on large numbers of observations- Basis for most generalizations and theories we have today Hypothesis-based science In hypothesis-based science, deduction usually takes the form of predictions about what outcomes of experiments or observations we should expect if a particular hypothesis (premise) is correct. Explaining nature by proposing and testing hypotheses- tentative answers to question; educated guesses- must be testable Deductive Reasoning:- a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise- If then Unity and diversity As diverse as life is, we can also find unity, such as a universal genetic code. The more closely related two species are, the more characteristics they share. Diversity is a hallmark of life. 1.8 million species identified and named Structure and function Form and function are intimately related at all levels of biological organization. Chapter Two: The Chemical Context of Life Matter Anything that takes up space Matter exists in many diverse forms, each with its own characteristics- Anything that takes up space and has mass- Made up of elements elements a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions an elements properties depend in the structure of its atoms atoms the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element the smallest unit of an element that retains its distinctive chemical properties composed of subatomic particles- protons (+1 charge); 1 dalton, in the nucleus- neutrons (no charge); 1 dalton, in the nucleus- electrons (-1 charge); no mass, outside the nucleus...
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BIO REVIEW, PART ONE - Biology: Exam One Review Checklist...

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