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311C F08 L6OL-ppt5 - Glycosidic Linkage H HO H H OH H OH O...

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The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
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Macromolecules Four main classes of large biological molecules
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Macromolecules Polymer Monomer
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Making and Breaking Polymers
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Making Polymers (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A
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Breaking Polymers (b) Hydrolysis of a polymer HO 1 2 3 H HO H 1 2 3 4 H 2 O H HO Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Figure 5.2B
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Diversity of Polymers Each class of polymer is formed from a specific and limited set of monomers
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Carbohydrates
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Monosaccharides
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Monosaccharides: Structure
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Fig. 5-3 Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Ketoses Aldoses Fructose Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 )
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Fig. 5-4 (a) Linear and ring forms (b) Abbreviated ring structure Monosaccharides: Structure
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Glycosidic Linkages
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Unformatted text preview: Glycosidic Linkage H HO H H OH H OH O H OH CH 2 OH H H O H H OH H OH O H O H CH 2 OH H O H H OH H OH O H OH CH 2 OH H H 2 O H 2 O H H O H HO H OH O H CH 2 OH CH 2 OH HO OH H CH 2 OH H OH H H HO OH H CH 2 OH H OH H O O H OH H CH 2 OH H OH H O H OH CH 2 OH H HO O CH 2 OH H H OH O O 1 2 1 4 1– 4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage Glucose Glucose Glucose Fructose Maltose Sucrose OH H H Polysaccharides • Starch • Glycogen • Cellulose Starch Chloroplast Starch Amylose Amylopectin 1 μ m Branching Glycogen Mitochondria Giycogen granules 0.5 μ m Glycogen Cellulose Fig. 5-7 (a) α and β glucose ring structures α Glucose β Glucose b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of α glucose monomers (b) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of β glucose monomers Starch v. Cellulose...
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