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Unformatted text preview: 9-5-07Positive freedom– One is free in the positive sense, to the extent that one has freedom over oneself. Self-mastery.Negative freedom– The absence of coercion, lack of pressure and influences exerted on an individual to make them do something a certain way. Commonly associated with “freedom”.-No situation in society with a total lack of coercion, and absolute freedom is not possieither because we’re never entirely in control of ourselves.First you struggle to release yourself from coercion, then you struggle to release yourself fromresponsibilities of freedom.How do these freedoms interact?Unit 1-“What is the Indian?” then becomes “Does the Indian have a soul?” (If yes, then theycan’t be harmed and are under rule of the king; if no, then they can’t be enslaved).-The beginning of “international law,” questioning what sovereignty the Spanish crownhas over conquered people.Unit 2– Haitian Revolution-First successful slave rebellion, challenged the power of the conquerors, which shockeEurope.-Haiti was the most important colony of France (because of sugar) and perhaps in all of Europe sugar is equivalent to petroleum today.-Immense profit from sugar production by slave labor (Cuba)-Napoleon’s army could not win back Haiti; established the first independent black natstate (gained negative freedom) -Question of what you do after independence.Unit 3– Cuban Sot Revolution-How do you go from armed struggle to the transformation of human consciousness?-(Capitalism to som? Personaltransformation)Unit 4-Coming out of debt-Interest skyrocketing, banks telling you where to spend money.Discovery– “Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbean and, by extension, America, on Octob12…” Yes and no – how could Columbus have discovered what he wasn’t aware of? Not the discovery asfact, but interpreting the factof his arrival (when and where he arrived). Columbus– did not know of the place’s existance, didn’t know where he had arrived. Wanted to prove that he was right about sailing West to reach the East unnecessary interpretation.Related to entry from Columbus’s ship’s log: Columbus believes he will form “great friendship” with Indians, gives gifts of “little value” which give Indians “great pleasure”.-Future economic transactions: ripping the Indians off, taking advantage.-Indians bring great gifts in exchange for mere trinkets.-Europeans see that the Indians have no weapons and no experience with them.•Economic, intellectual, and military advantage for the Europeans (indigenous peoplehave something of a culture, somethingof a soul).Discovery– coming to consciousness about something, Columbus then did understand that he “discovered” something....
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course MAP World Cult taught by Professor Aching during the Fall '08 term at NYU.
- Fall '08