Lecture 19 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Gene Regulation 11-12

Lecture 19 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Gene Regulation 11-12

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Eukaryotic Genomes and Molecular Genetics Principles of Biology Lecture 19 Prof. David Fitch © 2007 D. Fitch
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Summary so far Eukaryotic genomes are packaged at multiple levels nucleasomes in 10-nm fiber 30-nm fiber of interacting nucleasomes 300-nm fiber of folded chromosomes 700-nm fiber of superfolded chromosomes 1400-nm metaphase chromosome Chromatin structure is regulated histone acetylation (and phosphorylation) opens chromatin DNA methylation at CpG: activation or repression genomic imprinting; epigenetic inheritance
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Chromatin but genomes have to be regulated specifically ...
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Eukaryotic gene regulation Transcription initiation transcription factors (activators, repressors) enhancers silencing combinatorial control of individual genes coordinate regulation of many genes Post-transcriptional regulation RNA splicing (alternative splicing) mRNA stabiltiy and turnover initiation of translation protein processing protein degradation Cancer: misregulation of gene expression affecting cell cycle Eukaryotic genome organization noncoding sequences and selfish DNA gene duplication and divergence
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Gene regulation Important to make sure the right gene is expressed at the right time location Development of a multicellular organism requires such spatio- temporal regulation from a single cell cell division and specialization ("differentiation") each cell only expresses a fraction of its genes for each type of differentiated cell, a unique set of genes is expressed Misexpression can lead to major problems tumors and cancer other defects in development or function
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Organization of a eukaryotic gene Multiple control elements regulate transcription by binding certain proteins that activate or repress transcription initiation Promoters are self-sufficient for driving gene expression can operate independently of the gene per se
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How to "report" promotor activity GFP (green fluorescent protein) gene can be used as a "reporter" to tell where or at what time a gene is expressed in vivo
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GFP reporter Promoters direct the spatial (and temporal) expression of a gene
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BIO V23.0011 taught by Professor Fitch during the Spring '08 term at NYU.

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Lecture 19 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Gene Regulation 11-12

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