Lecture 11 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance & Mendelian Genetics 10-15

Lecture 11 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance & Mendelian Genetics 10-15

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Genetic basis of heredity Principles of Biology Lecture 11 Prof. David Fitch
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Last time: Meiosis How chromosomes are inherited Process makes haploid gametes from diploid organisms Produces variation among gametes Homologous chromosomes (maternal and paternal copies of the same chromosome) are segregated into different daughter cells during Meiosis I Different chromosomes are assorted independently into the daughter cells during Meiosis I Crossing-over between non-sister chromatids in Prophase I Fertilization restores the diploid state in the zygote Fertilization also produces different chromosome combinations
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Variation due to meiosis Segregation and independent assortment of homologous chromosomes into gametes Key Possibility 1 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I Possibility 2 Metaphase II Daughter cells Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 Combination 4 Number of different n
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Fertilization also produces variation The number of different combinations of diploid progeny (zygotes) produced by random fertilization = n(sperm types) x n(egg types) = 2 n x 2 n . n +n 2n n n zygote
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How are traits inherited? Typical genetics experiment Green disappears in the second generation Green reappears in the third generation Hence, traits are not inherited from their parents, but factors that determine the traits are
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Charles Darwin vs . August Weissman Darwin (1868): "pangenesis" "gemmules" produced by the body influence gametes blending inheritance Galton (1869-70) showed this does not occur via blood Weissman: "germ plasm theory" germline passes heritable information without somatic influence e.g., mutilations are not inherited Germ plasm: Soma: Reproductive elements: Body/organs:
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Rediscovery, confirmation, and elaboration of Mendel's work, 1900 Carl Correns Hugo de Vries Erich von Tschermak
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Johann "Gregor" Mendel Mathematician, started work in Brno (Brünn) Augustinian monastery ca. 1857 Brought statistical rigor to studies of inheritance (important for agriculture) Published results in lecture series, 1865
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Model system for inheritance Mendel's MODEL SYSTEM, Pisum can cross can self
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Lecture 11 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance & Mendelian Genetics 10-15

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