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BME 210
Biomedical Computer Simulation Methods
Measuring Cardiac Output
I
Introduction
II.
Cardiovascular System
A.
Function
B.
Structures
C.
Distribution of Cardiac Output
D.
Regulation
III.
Technique of Dye Dilution
IV.
Formula for Cardiac Output
V.
Correction for Recirculation
VI.
Injection and Sample Sites
VII.
Numerical Integration
A.
The Problem
B.
Rectangular Approximation
C.
Trapezoidal Approximation
D.
Simpson’s Rule
VIII.
Approximation by Spline Functions
A.
Background
B.
Cubic Spline Approximation
C.
Example
D.
MATLAB Function and Example
E.
Example
IX.
Thermal Dilution and SwanGanz Catheter
Study Problems and Solutions
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Measuring Cardiac Output
!
Measuring Cardiac Output
I.
Introduction
The volume of blood pumped by the heart in a given period of time is defined as cardiac
output.
It is one of the most important variables reflecting the status of the cardiovascular system.
Therefore, its accurate measurement is essential for effective diagnosis and treatment of patients
with cardiovascular and related diseases.
Cardiac output, however, is very difficult to measure in
the intact human cardiovascular system.
For over 100 years, scientists and engineers have been
developing techniques and devices for measuring cardiac output.
In this module, we will discuss several techniques for measuring cardiac output and will
study in detail one class of techniques known as indicator dilution
techniques.
We will proceed as
follows:
After a brief introductory overview of the structure and function of the cardiovascular
system, we will introduce details of the technique of dyedilution
for measuring cardiac output.
We
will then study the basic principles underlying this method by first considering its application to an
artificial system involving the measurement of flow from a tank.
Next, we will see how we can
apply these basic principles (given certain assumptions) to the problem of measuring blood flow
from the heart in the intact cardiovascular system.
We will see that in order to measure cardiac
output, it will be necessary to integrate a function of time which is defined only by measurements at
selected time points.
To perform the necessary integration, several techniques for numerical
integration
will be introduced and applied to our problem.
II.
Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
A.
Function
The cardiovascular system is a transport system. It is instrumental in the transfer of oxygen
and nutrients from the environment to the body's tissues and in the removal of CO
2
and other waste
products of metabolism.
In addition, the cardiovascular system disseminates hormones from their
localized sites of synthesis to target tissues.
The circulation also participates in temperature regula
tion by carrying heat, a byproduct of metabolism, from production sites to areas where it can be
dissipated.
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 Spring '07
 D'Argenio
 Measuring Cardiac Output

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