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MeasuringCO - BME 210 Biomedical Computer Simulation...

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1 BME 210 Biomedical Computer Simulation Methods Measuring Cardiac Output I Introduction II. Cardiovascular System A. Function B. Structures C. Distribution of Cardiac Output D. Regulation III. Technique of Dye Dilution IV. Formula for Cardiac Output V. Correction for Recirculation VI. Injection and Sample Sites VII. Numerical Integration A. The Problem B. Rectangular Approximation C. Trapezoidal Approximation D. Simpson’s Rule VIII. Approximation by Spline Functions A. Background B. Cubic Spline Approximation C. Example D. MATLAB Function and Example E. Example IX. Thermal Dilution and Swan-Ganz Catheter Study Problems and Solutions
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BME 210 Spring 2009 Measuring Cardiac Output ! Measuring Cardiac Output I. Introduction The volume of blood pumped by the heart in a given period of time is defined as cardiac output. It is one of the most important variables reflecting the status of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, its accurate measurement is essential for effective diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular and related diseases. Cardiac output, however, is very difficult to measure in the intact human cardiovascular system. For over 100 years, scientists and engineers have been developing techniques and devices for measuring cardiac output. In this module, we will discuss several techniques for measuring cardiac output and will study in detail one class of techniques known as indicator dilution techniques. We will proceed as follows: After a brief introductory overview of the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, we will introduce details of the technique of dye-dilution for measuring cardiac output. We will then study the basic principles underlying this method by first considering its application to an artificial system involving the measurement of flow from a tank. Next, we will see how we can apply these basic principles (given certain assumptions) to the problem of measuring blood flow from the heart in the intact cardiovascular system. We will see that in order to measure cardiac output, it will be necessary to integrate a function of time which is defined only by measurements at selected time points. To perform the necessary integration, several techniques for numerical integration will be introduced and applied to our problem. II. Introduction to the Cardiovascular System A. Function The cardiovascular system is a transport system. It is instrumental in the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the environment to the body's tissues and in the removal of CO 2 and other waste products of metabolism. In addition, the cardiovascular system disseminates hormones from their localized sites of synthesis to target tissues. The circulation also participates in temperature regula- tion by carrying heat, a by-product of metabolism, from production sites to areas where it can be dissipated.
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