Lecture 13 - Chromosomal Genetics 10-22

Lecture 13 - Chromosomal Genetics 10-22 - Chromosomal basis...

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Chromosomal basis of heredity Principles of Biology Lecture 13 Prof. David Fitch ©2007 D. Fitch
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Midterm information Grades by Wed. MIDTERM 2 Friday, Nov. 9 NOT cumulative WILL COVER Lectures 10-17 and Chapters 13-18 MITOSIS, MEIOSIS, GENETICS
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Summary: "unlinked" genetics Mendelian genetics Different alleles encode different traits alleles can be dominant or recessive relative to other alleles In eukaryotes, there are two gene copies per zygote " Law of segregation " maternal and paternal alleles segregate during Meiosis I " Law of independent assortment " segregation at one locus is independent of segregation at another locus Extensions of Mendelian genetics Alleles can be codominant, incompletely dominant, and >2 Different loci can interact in producing a phenotype (epistasis) or many loci can act in the production of a trait (polygenic trait) Genes can be pleiotropic Effect of genes on trait can depend on environment Mendelian "Laws" can be violated genes on the same chromosome may be " linked " temp.-sensitive tyrosinase <33˚C >33˚C
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Chromosomal basis of inheritance Genes are packaged onto chromosomes How do we know this? correspondence between Mendelian trait inheritance and chromosome behavior during meiosis What are the consequences for the inheritance of traits? some genes are physically linked • assortment will not be completely independent FISH— Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a probe specific to a gene
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Genes - chromosomes correlations Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri In 1902 Sutton suggested that "the association of paternal and maternal chromosomes in pairs and their subsequent separation during the reduction division. ..may constitute the physical basis of the Mendelian law of heredity." His The Chromosomes in Heredity was published in 1903. [Wikipedia] Boveri
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Spermatogenesis in Ascaris Boveri's results Moore, J., 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology . Harvard
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Fertilization in Ascaris Boveri's results
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Genes are on chromosomes Thomas H. Morgan and Lillian Vaughn Morgan "Mutationist" at first skeptical of Mendel started Drosophila as a model system
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White-eyed flies Spontaneous mutation
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is X-linked Mendelian 3:1 Except: white only in males! Suggested "sex-
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BIO V23.0011 taught by Professor Fitch during the Spring '08 term at NYU.

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Lecture 13 - Chromosomal Genetics 10-22 - Chromosomal basis...

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