Lecture 20 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Biotechnology 11-14

Lecture 20 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Biotechnology 11-14

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Eukaryotic Genomes and Biotechnology Principles of Biology Lecture 20 Prof. David Fitch © 2007 D. Fitch
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Last time. .. Eukaryotic gene regulation "cascade" regulation: multiple steps allow multiple control points transcriptional regulation ( trans factors bind cis elements) promoter binds RNA polymerase control elements bind transcription factors combinatorial coordinate post-transcriptional regulation RNA splicing allows multiple products from the same gene RNA stability proteins and microRNAs translation initiation post-translational modifications protein stability and degradation
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"Cascade regulation" The many steps in the processes of transcription, RNA splicing, translation, etc. are potential steps for regulation e.g., RNA splicing: alternative splicing
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Cancer: misregulation of cell-cycle control genes Mutations in either stimulatory or inhibitory cell-cycle control pathways can lead to cancer oncogene tumor-suppressor
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Cancer: misregulation What would happen if a gene that normally induces a cell to undergo programmed cell death (PCD, apoptosis ) were mutated so as to be rendered inactive? e.g., APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1, homologous to CED-4 in C. elegans )
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Eukaryotic Genome Organization Eukaryotic genome also contains transposable elements and much non-coding DNA Gene duplication is a major source of "new" genes duplication allows the preservation of old function while allowing the evolution of new function
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Organization of the eukaryotic genome Coding sequences are the smallest fraction Repetitive "selfish DNA" elements are the largest fraction
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Discovered by McClintock as jumping genes Transposons: DNA intermediate Retroposons: RNA intermediate eukaryotic reverse transcriptase often encoded SINEs and LINEs are the most abundant DNA in mammals (non-viral retroposons) responsible for many genetic diseases Quic kTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompres s ed) dec ompres sor are needed to s ee this  pic ture. 1983
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BIO V23.0011 taught by Professor Fitch during the Spring '08 term at NYU.

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Lecture 20 - Eukaryotic Genome Organization and Biotechnology 11-14

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