HED 343 studydesigns2008overview

HED 343 studydesigns2008overview - Overview of Study...

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Overview of Study Designs in Epidemiological Research
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Fundamental Assumption in Epidemiology Disease doesn’t occur in a vacuum Disease is not randomly distributed throughout a population Epidemiology uses systematic approach to study the differences in disease distribution in subgroups Allows for study of causal and preventive factors
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Components of Epidemiology Measure disease frequency Quantify disease Assess distribution of disease Who is getting disease? Where is disease occurring? When is disease occurring? Formulation of hypotheses concerning causal and preventive factors Identify determinants of disease Hypotheses are tested using epidemiologic studies
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Types of primary studies Descriptive studies describe occurrence of outcome Analytic studies describe association association between exposure and outcome
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Basic Question in Analytic Epidemiology Are exposure and disease linked? Exposure Disease
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Basic Questions in Analytic Epidemiology Look to link exposure and disease What is the exposure? Who are the exposed? What are the potential health effects? What approach will you take to study the relationship between exposure and effect? Wijngaarden
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Basic Research Study Designs and their Application to Epidemiology
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Big Picture To prevent and control disease In a coordinated plan, look to identify hypotheses on what is related to disease and may be causing it formally test these hypotheses Study designs direct how the investigation is conducted
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What designs exist to identify and investigate factors in disease?
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Timeframe of Studies Prospective Study - looks forward, looks to the future, examines future events, follows a condition, concern or disease into the future time Study begins here
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Timeframe of Studies Retrospective Study - “to look back”, looks back in time to study events that have already occurred time Study begins here
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Study Design Sequence Case reports Case series Descriptive epidemiology Analytic epidemiology Clinical trials Animal study Lab study Cohort Case- control Cross- sectional Hypothesis formation Hypothesis testing
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Descriptive Studies Case-control Studies Cohort Studies Develop hypothesis Investigate it’s relationship to outcomes Define it’s meaning with exposures Clinical trials Test link experimentally Increasing Knowledge of Disease/Exposure
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Descriptive Studies
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Case Reports Detailed presentation of a single case or handful of cases Generally report a new or unique finding e.g. previous undescribed disease e.g. unexpected link between diseases e.g. unexpected new therapeutic effect e.g. adverse events
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2009 for the course HED 10520 taught by Professor Edmundson during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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HED 343 studydesigns2008overview - Overview of Study...

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