Lecture 17 - Bacterial & Viral Genetics 11-5

Lecture 17 - Bacterial & Viral Genetics 11-5 -...

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Viral and Bacterial Genetics Principles of Biology Lecture 17 Prof. David Fitch © 2007 D. Fitch
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Midterm information Friday Nov. 9, 1:20 - 3:10 pm Room assignments are the SAME as for Midterm 1. questions should be directed to Mr. Matt Nelson, mdn233@nyu.edu Chapters 12 through 18 (not 19) Lectures 9 through 17 (including today's) Be completely familiar with— mitosis, meiosis, Mendelian genetics, non-Mendelian genetics, linkage dihybrid crosses, testcrosses, pedigrees, sex-linkage, recombination mapping chromosomal genetics and aberrations (nondisjunction) DNA structure and its ramifications, replication, transcription, translation, genetic code genetics of viruses and bacteria (but not yet Ch. 19) how to make predictions from hypotheses
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Summary so far Genes are transcribed into mRNA mRNA (which bear "sense" information) is translated into protein product uses the Genetic Code (a table relating "sense" codons in mRNA to amino acids) uses tRNA and rRNA tRNA is the "translator" between mRNA code and amino acids rRNA is the site of protein synthesis, but does not itself contribute information to the product three steps initiation: at AUG with initiation tRNA elongation: translocation of mRNA along ribosome, which has 3 sites for tRNAs (A, P, E) termination: "stop codon" signals termination, achieved with "release factor" How do these processes and their regulation result in organisms and the traits they express?
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Three broad categories of "organisms" viruses and bacteriophage bacteria eukaryotes
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Genetics of viruses Viruses and bacteriophage have been great model systems for understanding the basic principles of molecular biology Also have unique properties and are significant pathogens
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Viruses are replicators In the late 1800s, researchers hypothesized that a particle smaller than bacteria caused tobacco mosaic disease sap contained the disease agent that was not diluted after repeated infections In 1935, Wendell Stanley confirmed this hypothesis by crystallizing the infectious particle, now known as tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1946
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Viruses are "simple" Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) as the "genome" Protein capsid modifications (e.g. glycoproteins) --> allow virus to become resistant Molecules are capsomeres Possibly other protein components (e.g. enzyme) Possibly membranous envelope TMV (RNA) adenovirus( DNA) influenza (RNA) T4 phage (DNA)
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Viruses are obligate parasites Viruses reproduce only within a host cell Each virus has a host range (a limited number of host cells that it can infect) Viruses use enzymes, ribosomes, and small molecules from the host cell to synthesize progeny viruses VIRUS HOST CELL Viral DNA Replication Entry into cell and uncoating of DNA
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Lecture 17 - Bacterial & Viral Genetics 11-5 -...

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