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Lecture 2 - Bonds Moles and Calories

Lecture 2 - Bonds Moles and Calories - CHEMICAL BONDS...

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CHEMICAL BONDS Valence Electrons: The electrons in the outermost electron shell, which participate in chemical bonds. C N O 4 valence electrons 5 valence electrons 6 valence electrons
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Electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. CHEMICAL BONDS H --------------- H H = H Equal electronegativity O --------------- H O > H Polar covalent bond Cl --------------- Na Cl >> Na Ionic bond δ- δ+ - + When electronegativities are unequal, there is a separation of charge within a molecule leading to bond polarity.
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Electronegativities: http://itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/change/C9F16.GIF
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CHEMICAL BONDS A pair of valence electrons in a molecule not used for bonding. The three molecules below have 1, 2, and 3 lone pairs respectively: Lone pair: Lone pairs are important in hydrogen bonding, which will come up in class.
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Moles 1 mole ~ 6.022 x10 23 atoms (or molecules) The mass of one mole of an element is equal to its relative atomic mass in grams.
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