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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 100 Exam 1 Review Module 1 Know what psychology is • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Was originally defined to just include observable behaviors • Behavior – anything an organism does that can be observed and recorded • Mental processes – internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior • Psychology is less a set of findings then a way of asking and answering questions • Psychology welcomes hunches and plausible sounding theories Know about the development of psychology as a science • Psychology was considered to have been created in December of 1879 • Many different schools: o Structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind relied on introspection requires smart, verbal people the results varied from person to person and experience to experience o Functionalism – a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish o Gestalt Psychology o Behaviorism o Psychoanalysis o Humanistic psychology – historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth • Developed from more established fields of philosophy and biology • Has origins in many disciplines and countries • Hard to define because activities range from psychotherapy to the study of nerve cells • Was originally very introspective and until the 1920s was defined as “the science of mental life” • Watson and Skinner dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior” because science is rooted in observation • Humanistic psychology • In the 1960s psychology begin to focus again on mental processes and how the mind retains information • Both ideas led to today’s definition The big issues with which psychology grapples • Nature-nurture issue – the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experiences make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors o Natural selection – the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Darwin’s attempt to study the nature-nurture issue stemmed this theory which is still around today • We’re a complex system as a part of a larger social system • This causes the need for different levels of analysis • The levels of analysis combined created the biopsychological approach which considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-culture factors • Each level by itself is incomplete • Levels of analysis – the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon • Biopsychological approach...
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- Fall '06
- Neural Networks, motor neurons