Chemical reactions in biochemistry - Chemical reactions in...

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Chemical reactions in biochemistry Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, MSc
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ELEMENTS The known elements: 109 elements are accurately known 87 are metals 26 are radioactive 16 are man made (all are radioactive) 11 occur as gasses 2 occur as liquid – at room temperature
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Metals
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Some properties of metals lustrous, metalable and ductile conductors of heat and electricity all are solid at room temperature (except for mercury) will lose electrons when reacting with non-metals
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Non-metals
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Some properties of non-metals examples of all physical states are observed at room temperature: Cl 2 – gas, Br 2 – liquid, I 2 – solid they are poor conductors of heat and electricity many exist as diatomic molecules they will gain electrons while reacting with metals, but they will share electrons while reacting with other non-metals
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Metalloids
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Some properties of metalloids these elements have variable chemical properties they act as non-metals when they react with metals they act as metals when they react with non-metals these materials have also semi-conductive properties
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From biochemical point of view bioelements, which are necessary for proper functioning of human organism macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl, P) microelements and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Se, Mn, Co, Ni, Si, Cr, Mo, F, B, Ru) elements, which are not ranked among bioelements, however they may significantly influence metabolic processes (Li, V, Be) toxic elements, which have negative influence on living organisms (Pb, Hg, Cd, Ba, Al)
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Macrolelements Sodium (Na) is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium Potassium (K) is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Calcium (Ca) is needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Magnesium (Mg) is required for processing ATP and for bones
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Macroelements (2) Sulfur (S) is a component of amino acids methionine and cysteine, is needed for skin health Chloride (Cl) is needed for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions Phosphorus (P) is a component of bones and energy processing and cellular membranes
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Microelements Iron (Fe) is required for many proteins and enzymes, notably haemoglobin. Zinc (Zn) is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase Copper (Cu) is required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase Iodine (I) is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine Selenium (Se) is a cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like GPx
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Microelements (2) Manganese (Mn) is a cofactor in enzyme functions Cobalt (Co) is a central component of the vitamin B 12 Nickel (Ni) is a component of some enzymes e.g. urease, SOD Silicon (Si) is essential for skin Chromium (Cr) is required in trace amounts for sugar metabolism Molybdenum (Mo) is as a metal hetero-atom at the active site in certain enzymes
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