Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Introduction to Organizational and Interpersonal Communication
1 A basic organization goal is survival. The behavior of people enables organizations to meet goals. Communication is the MAJOR way to influence the behavior of others to accomplish organizational goals. The most successful managers are those who are skillful communicators. The importance of The importance of communication: 2 Communication Communication Communication defined The exchange of information (sharing of a common meaning) between a sender (source) and a receiver (audience). A process in which a message is encoded and transmitted through some medium to a receiver who decodes the message and then transmits some sort of response back to the sender.
3 Communication as a process Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d)
The Communication Process Exhibit 12 . 1 4 Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d) Components of communication Sender: a person, group, or organization that has a message to share with another person or group of persons. Message: an idea or experience that a sender wants to communicate verbally and/or nonverbally. Encoding: converting the message into groups of symbols that represent the ideas or concepts that will be communicated.
5 Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d) Components of communication (cont’d) Medium of transmission: a means of carrying an encoded message from the source to the receiver. Decoding: the process by which the receiver interprets the symbols (coded message) sent by the source by converting them into concepts and ideas. Noise: interference that affects any or all stages of the communication process. 6 Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d) Components of communication (cont’d) Feedback: the receiver’s response to the sender’s message that is directed back to the original source (sender), who becomes a receiver. Channel capacity: a limitation imposed by the least efficient part of the communication process which restricts the volume of information that the communication channel can handle effectively.
Every channel has its limits EX: verbal communication – limit to how fast a source can speak and a receiver can decode 7 Communication medium Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d) Media richness A conduit or channel through which data and meaning are conveyed. Media’s capacity to carry and convey data. Evaluated according to: Datacarrying capacity. Capacity for timely feedback. Capacity for multiple uses (e.g., audio, visual). The extent to which the message can be personalized. The variety of language/expression that can be used (speech, body language, etc.).
8 Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d) Factors in selecting a communication medium
The richness of the medium. The cost of the medium versus its speed of transmission and its overall effectiveness. The purpose of the communication. The extent to which interaction between sender and receiver is necessary. The receiver’s capabilities for receiving and retaining the message. 9 Communication (cont’d) Communication (cont’d)
Alternative Communication Media
Face-to-face Telephone Speeches Video conferencing Intercom Written
Letters Computer printouts Electronic mail Memos Bulletin boards Nonverbal
Touch Eye contact Body language Time Space 10 Myths and realities about the Myths nature of communication Myth #1: We communicate only when we intend to. We frequently send messages we are not aware of. 11 Myths and realities about the Myths and nature of communication Myth #2: We think we communicate primarily with words. The majority of a message is based on nonverbal communication. 12 Myths and realities about the Myths and nature of communication Myth # 3: Communication is a one way activity of TELLING people something. Communicating is a twoway activity in which feedback is vital. 13 Myths and realities about the Myths and nature of communication Myth #4: The message we send is identical to the message received. The message received is NEVER identical to the message intended by the sender.
14 Myths and realities about the Myths and nature of communication
Myth #5: You can never give someone too much information. Information overload can be just as much of a problem as not having enough information. 15 NOISE in the Sender NOISE in the Sender Attitude and frame of reference Appropriateness of choice of language or other expression of the message Are you a credible sender? What do you need to do to gain more credibility? 16 NOISE in the Receiver NOISE in the Receiver
Attitudes Background Experiences that affect the decoding process What do I know about my intended receiver? What more do I need to find out?
17 NOISE in the Channel NOISE in the Channel Environmental sounds Speech problems radio static, traffic Annoying or distracting stammering, whiney voice mannerisms mumbling, soft voice 18 Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Defined
Communication between two people, usually facetoface. 19 Interpersonal Communication Types Interpersonal Communication Types Oral communication: takes place when the spoken word is used to transmit a message. Written communication: transmitting a message through the written word. Nonverbal communication: all intentional or unintentional messages (i.e., vocal cues and body language) that are neither written nor spoken.
20 Organizational Communication Organizational Communication Formal channels of communication Downward communication—information that flows down the organizational hierarchy from managers and supervisors to subordinates. Upward communication—information that flows up the organization from subordinates to supervisors and managers. Horizontal communication—messages that flow between persons at the same level of the organization.
21 Organizational Communication Organizational Communication (cont’d) Informal channels of communication The grapevine Informal communications that cut across formal channels of communication and carry a variety of facts, opinions, rumors, and other information. Managing the grapevine Helps ensure that organizational communications are main source of information. Helps managers get a feel for the morale of organizations, understand the anxieties of the workforce, and evaluate the effectiveness of formal communications. 22 Formal and Informal Channels of Formal and Informal Channels of Communication Formal channels —— Informal channels ----- Exhibit 12 . 2 23 Grapevine Activity Coming Next Grapevine Activity Coming Next 24 Grapevine Grapevine Rumor has it that Dave Novamo, a 32 year old sales executive for Supernova Incorporated, recently passed confidential product information to their competitor Mercury Pharmaceuticals. Dave was spotted at Bally’s Casino talking to Mercury’s CEO. The blackjack dealer at their table, whose name is “Lady Heather,” told captain Grissom about their conversation. Their conversation also included references to stolen rubies and a Saudi arms dealer. 25 ...
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