10 Behavioral Theories TN BUAD 302

10 Behavioral Theories TN BUAD 302 - Behavioral Theories...

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory Z Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model TQM Stroking Behavioral Theories Underlying Business Communications
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Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs Abraham Maslow (1954) People have various kinds of needs that emerge, subside, and then reemerge over their lives Lower levels represent the stronger needs Higher levels represent the weaker needs (see pyramid) Lower needs (basic, safety) dominate human behavior and must be satisfied before the higher, socially acquired needs (or wants) become meaningful.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Basic/Physiological needs To have food, shelter, and sleep, etc. Security and safety needs To be free from physical danger and to be secure in our homes, job, etc. Belongingness/Social and Love needs To be loved, belong to groups, have friendships Esteem/Ego needs To achieve, gain approval, recognition Self-actualization needs Self-actualization needs To achieve one’s fullest potential . .
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Basic/Physiological Needs: the bottom level of the pyramid Our strongest needs (air, food, water, sex for procreation, shelter, sleep, elimination of wastes) Until these needs are met, we cannot concern ourselves with higher needs Can be powerful motivators for behavior (starving person may steal, eat rats, etc.)
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Security/Safety Needs: the second level of the pyramid Our need for security – many types of security (save money, secure job, secure home, secure country) Avoid situations which may cause illness, injury, etc. The need for security emerges and reemerges as various threats to our security become evident and must be met
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Belongingness/Social and Love Needs: the third level of the pyramid After our security needs are met, we then become aware of this need This is our need for association, friendship, affiliation with others, and for affection – we join groups (golf clubs, churches, Greek Orgs, etc.) Sex as love Ads: beer commercials – beer makes for camaraderie (don’t see many people drinking beer alone)
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Esteem/Ego Needs: the fourth level of the pyramid Once our belongingness need is met, the need for esteem emerges Once we are part of a group, we want to feel that the group values us as a member To achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition. We want self-respect, status, and success Very common need in advertising – Ex. you use charcoal grill and your kids think you are best dad/mom on the block
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Self-actualization needs: The fifth level of the pyramid Frequently occurs at “peak” experiences – events in which people can enjoy themselves, learn about themselves, or experience something they have only dreamed of before (ex. sky-diving, acting in a play, etc.) Fulfillment of lower needs and knowing one’s true self (self-fulfillment)
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Better Understanding Maslow’s Model An excellent model for understanding human motivation , but motivation is a broad concept. Model can be confusing
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10 Behavioral Theories TN BUAD 302 - Behavioral Theories...

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