GEOL 1020 Test 2 Study Guide

GEOL 1020 Test 2 Study Guide - STUDY GUIDE, 2nd EXAM, FALL...

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STUDY GUIDE, 2nd EXAM, FALL 2007 1. o What are the reservoirs of carbon ( biologic and geologic)? Biologic: Atmosphere and oceans Geologic: Sedimentary and organic carbon o What process move carbon between these reservoirs? Gains: Respiration, decay, weathering, volcanism Losses: Photosynthesis, burial o Which of those geologic processes can remove CO2 from the oceans and atmospheres, thus promoting climate cooling? Photosynthesis, burial o Which of those processes can add CO2 to the oceans and atmospheres, thus promoting climate warming? Respiration, decay, weathering, and volcanism o Why do each of those geologic processes add or subtract CO2 from the atmosphere and oceans? What is the chemistry that is occurring? Volcanism: weathering and erosion, metamorphism: pressure and temperature, compaction Respiration: Animals eat organic matter and then respire Decay: of organic matter Photosynthesis: plants take CO2 from the atmosphere for nourishment, thus lessening the biologic CO2 content Burial: burial of organic carbon from plants and animals o How do carbon isotopes record changes in the balance of those geologic processes? That is, can you explain how the ratio of C13 to C12 can be used as a proxy for the amount of carbon in the atmosphere? Measured in a sedimentary rock, usually shell of marine organism More C13 in atmosphere is positive ratio proxy>>>warmer temps More C12 in organic/sedimentary reservoirs is negative ratio proxy>>>cooler temps o Be able to interpret the relative balance of organic carbon burial and weathering from carbon isotopic data. More carbon in atmosphere is positive C13 proxy>>>warmer temps: greenhouse More carbon in geologic reservoir is negative C13 proxy>>>cooler temps: ice house 2. The Cretaceous greenhouse o What geologic observations indicate that the Cretaceous was a time of a greenhouse (warm) climate? High latitude fossils of plants and dinosaurs>>warmer poles No Cretaceous glacial tills; widespread coals means warm/wet climate Warmer earth, less temp differences btw poles Global volcanism>>Lots of ocean crust formed during this time Low albedo/high greenhouse gasses o What are the geologic data that suggest the Cretaceous oceans were warm and oxygen poor? Widespread black Shales and coals produced
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GEOL 1020 Test 2 Study Guide - STUDY GUIDE, 2nd EXAM, FALL...

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