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LotW - Languages of the World Linguistics 101 Intro to...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 10/6/09 Linguistics 101 Languages of the World
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10/6/09 Intro to Languages of the World Number of Languages: ~6,000 Languages and their Speakers: Living Language: English, Spanish, Mandarin, etc. Dead Language: Aramaic, Latin, Cornwallish Revived Language: Hebrew Endangered Language: Coeur d’Alene, Tabasco
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10/6/09 Genetic Classification of Languages Genetic Organization (Ethnologue, 15th Edition) Languages are classified into families based on “genealogy.” Languages that develop from the same parent language are “related.” ~100 families Linguistics Isolates
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10/6/09 Genetic Classification (cont.) Methods of showing relationships: History/Archeology: written documents (history) or physical remains (archeology) are used to establish connections between languages and/or their speakers. Comparison: lexical items (and sometimes other grammatical features) from multiple languages are compared. Significant similarities are used
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10/6/09 Comparison Data Example one two three head eye ear nose mouth tooth Swedish en tvo tre hyvud øga øra njsa mun tand Dutch eːn tveː driː hoːft oːx oːr nøːs mont tant English wən tuʷ θriʲ hɛd iʲɹ noʷz maʷθ tuʷθ German aʲns tsvaʲ draʲ kopf aʷgə ōr nāzə munt tsān French œ̃ tʁwa tɛt œʲ ɔʁɛʲ ne buʃ dɑ̃ Italian uno due tre tɛsta okːjo orekːjo naso bokːa dɛnte Spanish uno dos tres kabesa oxo orexa naso boka djente Rumanian un doj treʲ kap okj ureke nas gurə dinte Polish jeden dva tʃi glova oko uxo nos usta zõp Russian adin dva tri galava oko uxo nos rot zup Bulgarian edin dva tri glava oko uxo nos usta zəb Finnish yksi kaksi kolme pæː silmæ korva nenæ suː hamːas Estonian yks kaks kolm pea silm korv nina suː hamːas Hungarian ketːœː hɑrom feʲ sem fyl orː saʲ fog Turkish bir iki ytʃ baʃ gœz kulak burun aˠɨz diʃ Mandarin yī èr sān tóu yǎnjīng ěrduo bízi kǒu yátsǐ Japanese itʃi ni san atama me mimi hana kutʃi ha Basque bat bi hiryr byry begi belari sydyr aho orts
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10/6/09 Indo-European Language Family Family Subgroup Branch Major Languages Minor Languages Indo- European Germanic Western English, German, Yiddish, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans Frisian, Luxembourgian Northern Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic Faroese Italic Latino- Faliscan (Latin) Romance
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