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Lesson_21 - Electrochemistry Chapters 5 and 20(Petrucci et...

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Lesson 21 Electrochemistry Chapters 5 and 20 (Petrucci et al.)
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Lesson 21 Oxidation states (Petrucci, section 3-4) The oxidation state (or number) is related to the number of electrons that an atom gains, loses, or otherwise uses when combining with other atoms in a compound The concept of oxidation state is arbitrary: it does not necessarily have a fundamental meaning but it is useful to understand oxidation- reduction reactions
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Lesson 21 Examples of oxidation states NaCl: Na has oxidation state +1 Cl has oxidation state -1
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Lesson 21 NaCl: Na loses 1 electron → Na + Cl gains 1 electron → Cl -
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Lesson 21 Rules for assigning oxidation states The OS of an individual atom in a free element is 0: l, Cl , N , O , O 2 +1 +2 -1
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Rules for assigning oxidation states H has OS = +1, except when bonded to metals when its OS = -1 (LiH, for instance) Lesson 21 +1 +2 -1 +1/-1 -2 -3 -2/-1
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Lesson 21 Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions In a reduction-oxidation reaction, one of the reagents is oxidized while the other is reduced A chemical substance is oxidized when it loses
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