March 24, 2005
Slide Show 7
Environmental Impact Assessment. (Sometimes called EA’s)
Environmental Impact Report
The first meeting of the principals involved with the EIA and the head of the
group that will do the EIA.
People that control the funds.
Purpose of EIA’s:
Permit development in an environmentally sound manner. Minimize
environmental, social, and economic impacts. EIA’s are still sometimes done by large
engineering companies. They do projects like helping to plan the building of a dam.
Steps involved in Producing an EIA:
1) Identify the Environmental, economic and social changes that are likely to occur
because of the development. Engineering plans, biology of area, etc. Take
everything into account. This takes a long time to do.
2) See Slides 32 & 33 for sub-categories of 3 impacts (economic, social,
History of the EIA (
1960’s)--The Vietnam War was going on and there were many
protests, especially by college students. The students became interested in the
environment and they began exploring the impacts of pollution on the environment. The
(environmental protection agency) was established in 1969, and this in turn led to
the beginning of the EIA studies. They were conducted by large engineering companies,
and the studies usually took about 3-6 months. Over time, The EIA’s grew longer and
longer, so the EPA had to step in and say that they couldn’t be longer than 150 pages.
Different people paid for the studies- oil companies, governments, etc. The bad thing
that for around the first six years, it was engineers that were doing all of the studies, so
the reports were very poor in quality, except for the engineering parts. Finally as time
went on, they hired more people and built up groups of experts.
Nitrogen oxides of different kinds. No2, etc. More than 50% of these come from
Sulfer Dioxide, SO2:
Most comes from power-generating plants. Comes from the coal—
lots on the East coast. ‘Clean coal’ has about 2% sulfur, but ‘dirty coal’ has about 10%.
If the sulfur is in the air and it mixes with water, it forms sulfuric acid
, which is one of
the most powerful acids known. The result of this is acid rain, which is a big problem in
the Northeastern U.S. The acid rain changes the Ph level of lakes over many decades.
Natural rainfall has a Ph of about 5—slightly acidic, not neutral. But with acid rain, you
can get Ph down to 4 or 3.
See attributes on slide 32. EIA attributes- Sanitary conditions, health, recreational areas
Comm. Disease Lec 7
Evaluating ecosystems in terms of monetary value. – Let’s say you wanted to create
another island for ships coming into harbor in LA- Clearly you will destroy the marine