Exercise 26 Answers
Philosophy 102 (Maher)
Spring 2009
1.
(a)
p
(
E

H
2
)
> p
(
E

H
1
) so, by the law of likelihood,
E
favors
H
2
over
H
1
.
(b)
p
(
H
2

E
)
/p
(
H
1

E
) = 1
>
2
/
3 =
p
(
H
2
)
/p
(
H
1
) so, by the definition of favoring,
E
favors
H
2
over
H
1
.
(c)
p
(
H
1

E
)
/p
(
H
2

E
) = 5
/
4 =
p
(
H
1
)
/p
(
H
2
) so, by the definition of favoring,
E
doesn’t
favor either hypothesis.
(d)
p
(
E

H
1
)
> p
(
E

H
2
) so, by the law of likelihood,
E
favors
H
1
over
H
2
.
(e)
p
(
E

H
1
) = 0
.
2
>
1
/
6 =
p
(
E

H
2
) so, by the law of likelihood,
E
favors
H
1
over
H
2
.
(f)
p
(
E

H
1
) = 1 =
p
(
E

H
2
) so, by the law of likelihood,
E
doesn’t favor either hypothesis.
(g)
p
(
E

H
1
) = 1
>
0
.
6 =
p
(
E

H
2
) so, by the law of likelihood,
E
favors
H
1
over
H
2
.
2.
(a) If
N
then species are formed by accumulating individual differences. This will produce
different varieties that gradually diverge until they are so different we count them as
different species.
But since the divergence is gradual, there will always be groups at
intermediate stages. Hence
p
(
E

N
) is high.
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 Spring '08
 WEINBERG
 Philosophy, Evolution, Common descent, likelihood, Subspecies

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