lecture22 - Lecture 22 Argument by Analogy Patrick Maher...

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Lecture 22 Argument by Analogy Patrick Maher Philosophy 102 Spring 2009
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Deduction and induction Deduction A deductive argument is an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to follow necessarily from the premises. Categorical and propositional logic are concerned with deductive arguments. Induction An inductive argument is an argument in which it is claimed only that the conclusion is probable given the premises. The remainder of this course will study inductive arguments.
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Argument by analogy Form of argument a 1 , a 2 , . . . , have properties F 1 , F 2 , . . . , and G . b has properties F 1 , F 2 , . . . . b has G . a 1 , a 2 , . . . , are the primary analogates . b is the secondary analogate . F 1 , F 2 , . . . , are the similarities . G is the projected property .
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Example Emily has taken three philosophy courses and liked all of them. Philosophy 202 is a philosophy course. Emily would like Philosophy 202. Primary analogates: The three philosophy courses Emily has taken. Secondary analogate: Philosophy 202. Similarity: Philosophy course. Projected property: Course Emily likes.
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Another example (not in standard form) Two of my friends had their carpets cleaned by Kleen Rite, and the company did a good job for both. Therefore, Kleen Rite would do a good job on my carpets. Primary analogates: The carpet cleaning jobs done for the two friends. Secondary analogate: The carpet cleaning job Kleen Rite would do for me. Similarity: Done by Kleen Rite. Projected property: Good job.
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Factors affecting strength of argument by analogy 1. Number of primary analogates Adding more primary analogates makes the argument stronger. Example Emily has taken one philosophy course and liked it. Philosophy 202 is a philosophy course.
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lecture22 - Lecture 22 Argument by Analogy Patrick Maher...

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