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vocabforfirstexam - Ch 11 Vocab Individual People 1 Chingiz...

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Ch. 11 Vocab Individual People 1. Chingiz Khan – (1167-1227) Title taken by Mongol chief Temujin meaning “The Oceanic Ruler.” Began dynasty that conquered much of Southern Asia. 2. Marco Polo – (1254-1324) Venetian merchant who traveled through Asia for twenty years and published his observations in a widely read memoir, Travels . 3. Timur the Lame – (1336-1405) Mongol ruler who was the last leader of the Khans’ south Asian empire. Also known as Tamerlane. 4. Prince Henry the Navigator – (1394-1460) Portuguese noble who encouraged conquests of western Africa and trade in gold and slaves. 5. Christopher Columbus – (1451-1506) Discovered and colonized the Canary Islands and the Azores for Spain which was under the control of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Groups of People 1. Ottoman Janissaries – Corps of enslaved soldiers recruited as children from the Christian provinces of the Ottoman empire and brought up with intense loyalty to the Ottoman state and its sultan. The sultan used these forces to curb local autonomy and to serve as his personal bodyguards. 2. Inkas – A South American nation that was conquered in 1533 by Francisco Pizarro 3. Aztecs –Native American people of central Mexico; their empire was conquered by the Spanish in the sixteenth century. Places 1. Canary Islands – Islands off the western coast of Africa conquered by Portugal and Spain in the mid- 1400’s. Used to supply expeditions around the African coast and across the Atlantic. Things 1. Gunpowder – Powder added to artillery to have a great effect during war. 2. Caravels – Sailing vessel suited for nosing in and out of estuaries and navigating in waters with unpredictable currents and winds. 3. Astrolabe – An ancient navigational instrument, thought to have been invented in 150 B.C.E., that was used to find latitude while at sea. 4. Conquistador – Spanish term for “conqueror,” applied to European leaders of campaigns against indigenous peoples in central and southern America. 5. New World silver – Silver that was taken from the New World and used to strengthen the European economy. Ch. 12 Vocab People 1. Francesco Petrarch – (1304-1374) Italian scholar and writer who revived interest in classical writing styles and was famed for his love sonnets. 2. Baldassare Castiglione – (1478-1529) Author of The Book of the Courtier , a popular treatise on upper- class social graces. 3. Leonardo da Vinci – (1452-1519) Florentine painter, architect, musician, and inventor whose breadth of interest typifies Renaissance ideals. 4. Raphael – (1483-1520) Italian painter noted for his warmly human treatment of religious subjects, particularly his Madonnas and large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. 5. Michelangelo – (1475-1564) Virtuoso artist, best known for the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
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